Tai Chi Chuan – The Art of Overcoming Hardness with Softness

by Cheng Tin-Hung and Dan Docherty
a) The Problem
The theory of Yin and Yang has taught us that hardness can overcome softness and that softness can overcome hardness. Let us now see how this theory works in practice when applied to Chinese martial arts.
A common occurrence in martial arts would be where A attacks B with all his strength and B uses all his strength to block the attack. Here the parties are engaged in a battle of force and the stronger side will win.
In another typical situation let us suppose that two men, one weak, the other strong, go to the same martial arts school and learn the same techniques for an equal length of time. In a fight between the two, the stronger will still defeat the weaker.
Wang Chung Yueh, a Tai Chi Chuan master, who lived during the Ming Dynasty, studied this type of situation. After many years of observing various hard styles of the Chinese martial arts, he came to the conclusion that, stylistic differences aside, when used in combat the end result was always the same; victory would go to the swiftest and strongest, and not necessarily to those who had made an intensive study of their art.
Chang San Feng had studied the same situation, even before Wang did. Driven by a belief that victory need not inevitably go to the strong, but that brain could defeat brawn, he used his knowledge of Taoism to create a martial art based on the principles of Tai Chi — the changes of Yin and Yang. He called it Tai Chi Chuan, the `Chuan’ meaning `Fist’ and thus implying martial art.
Correct application of Tai Chi Chuan techniques in combat will result in the situation where a slight application of force is sufficient to deflect, divert, or otherwise render harmless a force which is many times greater in magnitude. Thus the soft overcomes the hard and the weak need not fear to do battle with the strong. For the purposes of Tai Chi Chuan in combat, softness is the child of wisdom, and is not merely a weak force which can somehow magically defeat a stronger one.
The two major principles of Tai Chi Chuan self-defence strategy are using stillness to defeat motion, and using softness to defeat hardness.
b) The Solution Part One: Stillness defeats Motion
The practice of this principle requires a clear mind. We should wait for our opponent to begin making the first move then `pre-empt’ him by reacting decisively before he can complete it. We do this because, when facing our opponent, we do not know his intentions, and so we do not know which part of our body he will attack. It is better, then, to wait until he commits himself to an attack so that we can divert it before it reaches its conclusion, and then we in turn can counter-attack by striking his weak points. We must avoid taking this principle to the absurd conclusion of waiting for our opponent to hit us without moving a muscle in response. That is why in a classical text on the Thirteen Tactics it is written, `If the enemy does not move, we do not move, but as soon as he begins to move we move at once.’
In using this principle, our mind must remain clear to enable us to detect our opponent’s slightest movements and to counteract any intended attack. The key to this principle is that once our opponent has committed himself to an attack it is already too late for him to react to our counteraction. In the words of the military strategist Sun Tzu, `We must know ourselves and our opponent.’ We can only do this by remaining calm and collected until we clearly detect an impending attack to which we then immediately respond.
c) The Solution Part Two: Softness overcomes Hardness
In the practice of this principle we must consciously avoid using brute force in attempting to counteract the attacks of our opponent. Mind and body must work in harmony in the correct application of the techniques of defence and counter-attack.
The idea is to divert the attacks of our opponent in such a way as to turn his own force against him. This requires the use of one or more of the Eight Powers of Tai Chi Chuan, which are discussed below. Thus, if our opponent tries to punch us in the chest, the us of `Li’, a slight diversion to the side, will be enough to divert even his strongest attack and pave the way for our counter-attack. In the Song of Tai Chi Pushing Hands it is written, `A force of four ounces can overcome a force of a thousand pounds.’
Constant practice with a partner over a number of years is necessary to develop the ability to apply this sophisticated concept of self-defence. Even then we still require tuition from a competent instructor. To put this in simple terms, most of us are aware that an ox can be led with a length of string. Let us take the string to represent the four ounces and the ox to represent a thousand pounds. If the string is tied to a ring on the end of the ox’s nose it can be easily led, but if it is tied to its hind leg a different result can be anticipated. The value then of a competent instructor is to teach the correct application of softness, or slight force.
The use of hard force has certain clear-cut disadvantages, even for the mighty among us. It requires a greater expenditure of energy, whether used in defence or attack. This affects our breathing and increases our heartbeat which in turn puts a strain in our central nervous system, thus indirectly slowing our actions and reflexes. All this is of course very much to the advantage of our opponent. The use of softness on the other hand requires the expenditure of very little energy; our muscles remain relaxed and supple making our actions swift and sure. It also serves to develop clarity of thought and sensitivity, and to reduce stress.
The net result is that when using this softness in combat against a `hard’ opponent, whether in hand or body contact with him, our body acts as a radar system, feeding us information about our opponent’s intentions, which his own hardness or tension allows our softness and sensitivity to detect.
The other disadvantage in relying on strength alone is that there is always someone stronger. It should be recognised that even the strong get old some day.
To further ram home theory and practice we only have to look at Western history for our vindication. Perhaps the best example of its use was in the war between Greece and Troy, where for years the Greeks laid siege to Troy and thousands of lives were lost on both sides in a bitter war of attrition. Finally, at the suggestion of Odysseus, the most cunning of their leaders, the Greeks pretended to sail away, leaving behind the gift of a huge wooden horse. The Trojans hauled this into their city as a triumph, believing the war to be over. Late at night, a party of Greeks, who had hidden inside the horse, broke out, killed the guards and opened the gates for their comrades who had returned and were lying in wait. The Trojans, unprepared and unarmed after a night of celebration, were no match for the Greeks and Troy was put to the sword. This illustrates that the real meaning of softness lies in the use of intelligence rather than brute force.
Strategy of the Five Step Path
Before being able to apply the tactics of Tai Chi Chuan in combat, we must first understand the strategy which governs their use. In the Song of Tai Chi Pushing Hands it is written ‘a force of only four ounces can overcome a force of one thousand pounds’. This approach means we must rely on skill and intellect rather than brute force; it also requires us to follow a set path of five principles:-
We must maintain contact with our opponent, remaining sensitive to his every action. Thus we are able to detect his attacks and sense his weak points.
Our reactions to any attack should follow the principle that as soon as our opponent moves (attacks) we move (counter) before he can complete his movement. Defence and counter-attack are a series of smooth, unbroken movements.
When applying the principle of adherence, we should maintain only a soft or relaxed contact with our opponent. The sensitivity thus developed enables us to detect any changes in our opponents intentions. It is an early warning system. Our softness also makes it difficult for our opponent to detect our own intentions.
Once we have detected the direction of our opponent’s force we must go with it, not against it. This is the key to the Tai Chi tactic of using `four ounces of force’ to divert even the fiercest attack into the void. While our opponent is using all his energy to attack us we are able to conserve ours.
Rejection of Brute Force
Arm contact with our opponent must be both soft and continuous. We must neither withdraw the arm nor let it become tense. This constant soft contact enables us to detect change and to make spontaneous response without unnecessarily wasting energy.
By adopting the strategy of the Five Step Path we are able to achieve the ideal of using the minimum amount of force necessary to produce the maximum effect.
To sum up, we must intercept any attack in a relaxed manner, adhering to it while we use only a minimum force necessary to guide it gently away from its original target, and to the void. By doing this we can detect any changes that may occur in the attack and respond to them accordingly. This would be impossible if we used brute force to block the attack. Our actions must be harmonious and continuous.
One of the special characteristics of Tai Chi Chuan is the emphasis placed on diverting attacks and using our opponent’s own force against him. This is why we adhere to the strategy of the Five Step Path.
Adherence is useless without softness as we can only be sensitive to our opponent’s changes if we are relaxed.
Yielding is useless without adherence as we can only monitor our opponent’s movements and know when to counter-attack if we keep in contact with him.
Brute Force used against our opponent’s force will prevent us from detecting his weaknesses and this runs against Tai Chi Chuan principles which demand that we know the opponent as well as we know ourselves.
This then is the strategy we must follow when applying the Tai Chi Chuan combat tactics. These tactics are practiced when we do the `Pushing Hands Exercise’ which is the first step towards developing our ability to apply in a practical way the fighting tactics of Tai Chi Chuan.
Principles of the Thirteen Tactics
The ancient name for Tai Chi Chuan was the Thirteen Tactics. This referred to the Five Directions and the Eight Powers. Traditionally the Five Directions have been associated with the Five Elements while the Eight Powers have been associated with the Pa Kua or Eight Trigrams.
a) The Five Directions and the Five Elements
The Five Directions have traditionally been explained by way of the Five Elements. In Tai Chi theory before there was Tai Chi there was Wu Chi (literally `No Chi’). Wu Chi gave rise to Tai Chi which in turn gave rise to Yin and Yang. In Chinese philosophy the interaction and continuous changes of Yin and Yang, as well as producing the Eight Trigrams of the Pa Kua and the sixty-four hexagrams of the I Ching, also produced the Five Elements of Metal, Wood, Water, Fire and Earth, which in their turn were considered responsible for the formation of all matter in the world.
The Five Elements were held to interact thus:
• Metal gives birth to Water
• Water gives birth to Wood
• Wood gives birth to Fire
• Fire gives birth to Earth
• Earth gives birth to Metal
• Metal destroys Wood
• Wood destroys Earth
• Earth destroys Water
• Water destroys Fire
• Fire destroys Metal
Each element is stronger than the element which gave birth to it. Thus, as Metal gives birth to Water, Water is stronger than Metal. When any element is opposed by another quantity of the same element, the stronger quantity will win. To sum up, any element is stronger than two of the other four elements, and weaker than the remaining two. The interaction between the elements is eternal and continuous. Each element also has Yin and Yang characteristics. Thus Metal could be sharp and shiny or rusty and dull, while Water could be a roaring waterfall or a muddy pool. Let us take each one of the elements to represent one of the Five Directions:
• Metal represents Forward
• Wood represents Back
• Water represents Left
• Fire represents Right
• Earth represents Centre
If our opponent uses Metal (moves Forward) our response must follow the theory of the Five Elements. In other words we must use Water (move Left) or Fire (move Right) to destroy his Metal. If instead we use Metal (move Forward) also, then the stronger Metal will win, but this is contrary to Tai Chi Chuan principles. If we remain rooted to the Earth (Centre) Element we will be overcome by the advancing Metal. If we make use of Wood (move Back) the Metal will thrust forward in pursuit and cut us down when there is no more room to run.
The Five Elements teach us which are the most advantageous and least advantageous of the Five Directions in any given situation. We do not actually need to step forward, back or to the side when moving from the centre, a slight shift of weight in the appropriate direction will normally suffice. These directions refer to the direction in which our body is moving at any one time and we apply the Eight Powers in conjunction with such movements. This gives us a wide variety of possible actions and responses.
b) The Eight Powers and the Eight Trigrams
All genuine martial arts contain some method of applying force. This method may be hard or soft in nature and may be applied in attack and defence. It is called `technique’.
Because of the intrinsic relationship between Tai Chi Chuan and Taoist theory the student of Tai Chi Chuan must not only train technique, but, before he can apply technique properly, he must also understand the underlying theory which governs its use. The Tai Chi Chuan method of applying force is called Pa Peng which can roughly be translated as Eight Powers.
Just as from the Pa Kua (Eight Trigrams) we are able to derive the sixty-four hexagrams of the I Ching, so from the basic Eight Powers, by applying them in different ways, in different directions, we can produce all the fighting techniques of Tai Chi Chuan. Furthermore, just as the sixty-four hexagrams can, by mathematical process, produce further diagrams, so our Eight Powers, if used imaginatively, can produce an indefinite number of fighting techniques.
In effect, each of us is a three-dimensional Tai Chi, containing both Yin and Yang, which for present purposes we will take to mean defence and attack. From Yin and Yang, the theory tells us, come Sei Jeung, which are Old Yin, Young Yang, Young Yin and Old Yang. These tell us that although there can be both pure attack and pure defence, attack can also contain elements of defence and likewise defence can also contain elements of attack. When we attack or defend we use a method of applying power called technique. When this technique is one governed by Tai Chi theory we are using one or more of the Pa Keng or Eight Powers.
Let us now attempt to explain these Eight Powers:-
1. Pang is the use of force in an upward direction such as when our opponent thrusts forward and diagonally upward and we respond by tracing the direction of his attack, and using our hands in a smooth and circular movement to divert it even further upward and forward, causing him to lose his balance.
2. Li is the use of force in a sideways direction, such as where we intercept and move with a forward directed attack, simultaneously diverting it slightly to one side and thus to the void. The greater the force of his attack, the greater the resulting loss of balance on the part of our opponent.
3. Tsai is a forward directed thrust such as a well-directed push when our opponent is off balance.
4. On is where we direct force downwards such as pressing down on our opponent with our hands as he loses balance in a forward direction.
5. Tsoi is where our opponent loses control of his centre of gravity, and we use a technique to disrupt his balance to such an extent that he is uprooted completely from his position. It is something like a strategically placed lever lifting a heavy rock.
6. Lit is where we use force in the form of a circular diversion which, as it passes the half-way point starts to move back in the direction of our opponent, spiralling the force of his own attack back against him.
7. Tsou is the use of the elbow or knee joint to divert our opponent’s attack and make him lose his balance or to strike his weak points.
8. Kou is the use of the torso to divert our opponent’s attack or to strike him when at close quarters, such as when he attempts to divert our punch into the void, and in reply we continue our forward momentum using the shoulder to strike him.
These powers when applied should result in a circular application of defence and counter-attack. They also contain elements of one another. Pang contains Li which in turn can contain either Pang or Tsai. Lit contains Tsoi and On. These powers must be applied flexibly depending on the circumstances that arise. Other so-called `powers’ are in fact derived from these Eight Powers. Though the Pa Keng are normally thought of as hand and arm techniques, their use can equally be adapted to foot and leg techniques.
There is much confusion and misunderstanding about the traditional connection between the Pa Keng and the Pa Kua. First of all there are two major ways of setting out the Eight Trigrams octagonally. These are reproduced below:-
Fu Hsi’s Pa Kua were said to represent the world in its pre-natal stage while King Wen’s were said to represent the state of affairs after the birth of the world.
King Wen’s Pa Kua were included in the Chinese Almanac where compass points were assigned to each of the individual trigrams. However, Western cartographers represent the direction North as `Up’ and the direction South as `Down’ while traditional Chinese cartographers looked at maps `upside down’, thus making South `Up’ and North `Down’. Thus, in the Chinese Almanac, the Pa Kua were represented as:-
It was when various authorities tried to explain the Pa Kua to Westerners in terms of compass points that confusion arose. Some simply turned the compass points inside Fig. 3 around 180 degrees, others turned both the compass points and the trigrams around 180 degrees, while others still used Fu Hsi’s or other octagonal arrangement to represent the trigrams around the compass points.
Relating the Pa Kua at Fig. 3 to the use of the Pa Keng, we can imagine ourselves standing at the centre of a circle made by the trigrams. When our opponent launches an attack from the direction of any one trigram, we use one of the Pa Keng to divert its force in the direction of another trigram.
c) Conclusion
For interest’s sake we list below the Eight Powers and their related trigrams, as well as the Five Directions and their related elements. Together they make up the Thirteen Tactics:

Eight Powers
Tactic Trigram Natural Phenomenon Directions Elements
Pang Chien Heaven Forward Metal
Li Kun Earth Back Wood
Tsai K’an Water (as in rain) Left Water
On Li Fire Right Fire
Tsoi Sun Wind, wood Centre Earth
Lit Chen Lightning
Tsou Tui Water (as in lake or marsh)
Kou Ken Mountain

Five directions
Directions Elements
Forward Metal
Back Wood
Left Water
Right Fire
Centre Earth
Those who have studied Chinese philosophy may care to consider why and how each particular tactic is related to the relevant trigram, or element, but this question is largely irrelevant for our purposes. Suffice it to say that Wang Chung Yueh set out the above relationship, but we have no record of how he arrived at it.
Just as from North we derive North East and North West, so from North West we derive North North West and West North West. Thus, just as compass points are not limited to the eight points shown at Fig. 3 so directions of applying Pa Keng (Eight Powers) are likewise without limit, as we may use the Pa Keng in combination with the theory of the Five Directions and the Five Elements.
In order to be able to use these Thirteen Tactics effective knowledge of the theory is insufficient. Constant practice of the Pushing Hands is essential before we can freely and fluently apply them.


Tai Ji Chuan – Grand Ultimate Fist


Tai Ji Chuan – Grand Ultimate Fist
Yang, Chen ,Wu and Wang Styles of Tai Chi Chuan
It was created from founder Chan San feng who was a Taoist Monk. He watched the crane and snake fight each other to get the idea of the hard and soft principles to combine this and make Tai Ji Chuan. Tai Ji Chuan is famous for it’s graceful movements and its stress relieving effects on the mind and body. This Chinese Martial Art combines relaxation and exercise in a series of continuous, flowing body movements. The slow motions of this form help to cultivate effortless movement, and create a feeling of calmness. Practitioners begin with the Yang Family style routine to acquire fundamentals, and then gradually to more advanced movements. This will help practitioners develop a solid foundation and understanding of Tai Ji Chuan. The styles taught are Yang, Chen, Wu and Wang families. Tai ji practice is not only a martial art training for self-defense but also serve as a balance training that helps you in your older age. The principle of searching balance and elegance the way of living benefit you in a very big range. Tai ji starts as a guide, and then the art finally leads you into the world of harmony, which is “Tao”. The circular, spiral type of movements prevents joint impact. The joints moving in circular patterns help to prevent arthritis and numerous ailments in the body. Tai ji starts in searching body re-patterning through slow motion. Then with push hand practice one experience how to cooperate and coordinate with others as well as himself. When one can sync himself with the opponent, the power of both become one. There will be no opponent, neither one’s own Tai ji training is begin and ended with faith. Everyone appreciate the cooperation from others as well as from themselves in this day and time. It is not to beat someone up. Or fear to be beaten by someone. It is a matter of purifying ourselves, with better skill, with much sensibility to the surrounding as well as within. Tai ji contains the Chan Si (silk reeling), it is one continuous line drawn with the body, like a silk worm that uses one single thread of silk to create an entire cocoon. Tai ji is thus the use of intention to circulate the original Hun Yuan Qi, as to strengthen it, the body and create the Chan Si force with it. Tai ji contains Xin Yi (consciousness intentions) as a guiding principle, the intention moves the Qi (energy), and the Qi moves the body. It also contains Hun Yuan, which is the original energy stored in Dan Tian. While practicing Tai ji the practitioner uses intention to move the original Qi from Dan Tian to circulate throughout the body, and than to return to Dan Tian. Practice Tai ji must begin with Wu Ji, and earnestly seek Yin and Yang, opening and closing. Wu Ji is a state of emptiness, before a formation of any movement, as soon as the slightest movement occurs it is already Tai ji and it contains Yin and Yang, opening and closing. Spring, summer, fall and winter, in Chinese medicine is a cycle of birth (sheng), growth (zhang), decline (shou) and storage (cang) respectively. In an auspicious year the weather is harmonious with this cycle, and illnesses among the people are few. Thus while practicing Qigong Yin and Yang, opening and closing should take and even part. To summarize all that, while practicing Tai ji the intention moves the Qi, the Qi moves the body. Beyond that the essence transforms into Qi, the Qi transforms into the spirit, and the spirit returns to emptiness, a search into that will bear a big progress. This is the beginning and end result for life and the Tao for our beings.

What is Taijiquan?

Taijiquan is an ancient healing and martial art developed in China. The purpose of Taijiquan is to develop a more specific personal relationship between the practitioner’s body, mind and spirit. Effective Taijiquan practice can reduce the likelihood of sickness and stress and aid in the prevention of disease. Effective practice means a strong understanding of basic hand and foot movements coupled with an understanding of internal principles. These internal principles are defined as: Stillness, Patience, Diligence, Continuous and Exactness. Taijiquan is a safe, effective, natural way to improve one’s life.

Taijiquan is an elaborate method of Qigong and what makes it more useful is that it can be applied as a method of self defense. Instruction combines not only learning a series of forms, but the principles of internal energy development as well as the weapons and push hand exercises associated with those styles, providing the opportunity to engage in basic as well as in-depth learning.
The Yang Style’s big movements and upright stance is best known in the United States.

A History of Tai Chi Chuan

More than 300 different known martial arts styles are practiced in China. There are two Chinese Martial Art systems, the internal and the external systems. The internal system includes Tai Chi, Sheng-I and Pa-Qua styles. The emphasize stability and have limited jumps and kicks. The external system includes Shao Lin, Long Fist, Southern Fist, and other styles. They emphasize linear movements, breathing combined with sound, strength, speed and hard power impact contact, jumps, and kicks.

There are many different styles or families of Tai Chi Chuan. The six which are practiced most commonly today are the Yang, Chen, Wu , Sun, Wang and Wu Hao styles. All Tai Chi styles, however, are derived from the original Chen family style.

Some people believe that Tai Chi was developed by a Taoist Priest from a temple in China’s Wu Dong Mountains. It is said that he once observed a white crane preying on a snake, and mimiced their movements to create the unique Tai Chi martial art style.

Initially, Tai Chi was practiced as a fighting form, emphasizing strength, balance, flexibility, and speed. Through time it has evolved into a soft, slow, and gentle form of exercise which can be practiced by people of all ages.

The Development Of Chen Taijiquan

The Chen Family Cannon Pounding Art (Pao Chui)

The Chen family assimilated all the arts they practiced and created their own version of the predominant art which they practiced, Cannon Pounding (Pao Chui), derived from the original Shaolin Cannon Pounding art. Sung Tai Zhu Chang Chuan formed a major part of this new art and there were elements from Shaolin Red Fist in it.
What resulted is five routines of Chen family Pao Chui and one routine of `Short Hitting’ (duan da) and the song formula stated a total of a 108 postures consisting the art. There is much confusion over this particular song formula but on closer examination the correct name should be ‘Boxing Canon Complete Formula’ and is only found in the later Liang Yi Tang Ben manual. By the time the Wen Xiu Tang Ben Chen family martial arts manual was written it was noted that the `second and third routines are lost’. The Wen Xiu Tang Ben makes no reference to an art called Taijiquan or ’13 postures’ or 13 anything for that matter. So it is an early reference to the state of the Chen family arts before the advent of the Taijiquan of the Chen family that we know today.

The Chen family was famous for the Cannon Pounding art for several generations and gained the beautiful name of `Cannon Pounding Chen Family’ (Pao Chui Chen Jia) in the region around the Chen village.

The Simplification Of Chen Routines

Somewhere along the line the Chen Pao Chui art was simplified to just two routines. We have no evidence to indicated who was the one responsible for this simplification. The furthest that we can trace it back is to Chen Chang Xin, Yang Lu Chan’s teacher. But even the Chen family geneology book does not indicate that he was responsible for this momentous change, only indicating that he was a boxing teacher with a nickname `Ancestral Tablet’.

We know for certain that two of the routines were already lost by that time and so only the 3 remaining could account for the final two routines. Whether there was an integration or that another routine was lost through time resulting in the final two is not certain at all.

The Advent Of Internal Boxing In The Chen Arts

When did the Chen arts become a form of internal boxing as opposed to to their parental arts which were external boxing?

Most of the Taijiquan lineages regard Jiang Fa as the one providing the input that transformed the art from the external Cannon Pounding to the softer internal art. Some have also credited his input as the reason why the transformed art was called Taijiquan, a name reflecting a Taoist origin and also the classification of the art as an internal one. The name, however, was not widely used for the art until Yang Lu Chan popularised it in the capital city of Beijing. From the early writings, we know that the form was originally called the ’13 postures’ and by that time the name Taijiquan was already in use as evidenced by the Taijiquan Classic of Wang Tsung Yueh and the Ten Important Discourses Of Chen Chang Xin1.

The classification of martial arts into external and internal came about because of the new method of combat devised by Chang San Feng, a Taoist which resided in the Wu Dang Mountains. It stressed overcoming external techniques using calmness and appropriate action and from external form this martial art often looked weak in comparison with external styles but could defeat them easily.

Internal Boxing was passed down through the generations with noted practitioners like Chang Sung Chi, Huang Zhen Nan, Huang Pai Jia, Gan Feng Chi and Wang Tsung. Wu Dang Internal Boxing still exists at the place of its birth though it has been diversified into many different styles in the course of the centuries. But still present in its syllabus is a form called Wu Dang Taijiquan. This bears only a little resemblance to the popular Taijiquan of today but has common theories.

We know that the Chen family was famous for generations for their Pao Chui art which was a Shaolin form. It was only after Chen Chang Xin that the art was considered an internal one and specifically from the lineages stemming from Yang Lu Chan the founder of the Yang style of Taijiquan.

According to Chen Xin, Chen Chang Xin learned part of his art from Jiang Fa. Chen Chang Xin had been practicing his boxing when Jiang Fa who was passing by saw him practicing and burst out laughing. Realising that he was observed Jiang Fa hurried away but Chen Chang Xin caught up with him and angrily challenged him as Jiang had slighted his Chen family art. Chen grabbed Jiang’s shoulder from behind, Jiang simply turne around and Chen was thrown out and lay on the floor. Realising the superiority of Jiang’s art Chen asked Jiang to be his master. Jiang who ran a Toufu shop in Xian was passing through villiage after visiting his mother in Honan. Jiang said that he would return after three years to teach Chen and he indeed returned at the appointed time after which Chen Chang Xin brought him home and learnt Taijiquan from him.

Chen Xin also said that because Chen Chang Xin had studied with Jiang Fa, the Chen family did not permit him to teach the family art of Pao Chui. This could very well explain why Chen Chang Xin held his classes in secret in the dead of night in the back courtyard of his home where Yang Lu Chan spied upon him.

Chen Xin also introduced to Wu Tu Nan another Taiji master from the Chen village called Du Yu Wan (the source for a song formula attributed to Jiang Fa’s teacher from Shanxi which is probably Wang Tsung Yueh. This is found at the back of Chen Xin’s book). According to Du, his art came down from Jiang Fa who was from Kaifeng in Honan and that his form and Yang Lu Chan’s form was the same, even bearing the same postural names like `Grasp Sparrow’s Tail’ and the same sequence. Du told him that his Taijiquan was not a family transmitted art but a teacher transmitted art. The previous generations of the art, that is the founder of his lineage, were present when Jiang Fa was teaching Chen Chang Xin and had also learnt the art from Jiang Fa. He then demonstrated his form to Wu Tu Nan and the form was the same as the Yang style of Taijiquan.

According to Chen Xin, Chen Chang Xin was very stiff in the upper body and was therefore nick named `Mr Ancestral Tablet’. When he was learning under Jiang Fa, Jiang made Chen practice some loosening exercises to rid him of his stiffness before teaching him Taijiquan. The rest of the Chen family continued in their practice of Pao Chui for which they were famous for.

The input from Jiang Fa, who traced his lineage back to Chang San Feng, which indicates that his art was Wu Dang Internal Boxing or at the very least derived from it, would mark the change of Chen family art from an external one to an internal one.

The earliest available literature on Taijiquan indicates that the art consisted of only 13 postures, the 8 Gates and Five Steps. We know that the 8 gates were 8 postures which represented 8 different types of Jing (refined strength). The Five Steps were the five different directions of their application. These were probably incorporated into the existing Pao Chui postures and the slow, relaxed, continuous and smooth manner of performing the form, the very element which made Internal Boxing look weak, was also incorporated. The result was a long form which had all the elements of Internal Boxing, a modified Pao Chui form which was a vehicle for Internal Boxing’s theories and practices. This would have been the art that was transmitted by Chen Chang Xin.

13 Postures

The form was also known as the 13 postures since all the techniques within derived from the basic 13. This has always been standard in the Taijiquan Classics that have come down from the Wu Yu Xiang and Yang Lu Chan.
The Wen Xiu Tang Ben does not state the existance of the new form. The Liang Yi Tang Ben, a later manual does record it but calls it the 13 sections instead. Chen Xin’s book recorded the Xin Jia of the Chen Style of Taijiquan. The material he records is quite different from that which was gleaned from him from Wu Tu Nan.

We need to first recognise that Chen Xin’s book was published posthumously. He had 3 other collaborators who published the book after his death. How much of the book is attributable to him is a matter of uncertainty. The fact that the book was only published four years after his death would indicate that considerable editing could have taken place by his 3 collaborators.

The Yang related styles of Taijiquan all agree on the classication of the basis of the art which is the 13 postures. The postures of Peng, Lu, Ji, An, Tsai, Lieh, Chou, Kao, Gu, Pan, Jin, Tui and Ding. These are the postures delinated and referred to in the accepted Classic writings. In Liang Yi Tang Ben, the form is called not only the 13 postures but also 13 sections, a rather different classication which is carried on into Chen Xin’s book where the entire form is taught as consisting of 13 sections, each section having sub-postures. This other classication is ignored by Tang Hao and Gu Liu Xin in their writings.

The 13 postures actually consists of 8 basic postures and 5 movements. The 8 basic postures differ slightly in the early Chen style publications. The Liang Yi Tang Ben records the first four as Peng, Ji, Lou, Na and Chen Xin’s book records them as Peng, Lu, Ji, Na. Chen Tze Ming’s book has the same song formula as in Chen Xin’s book but here the first four are recorded as Peng, Shu, Ji, Na. The full 8 postures are named in Chen Tze Ming’s book as Peng, Shu, Ji, Na, Tsai, Lieh, Chou, Kao. It must be noted that the earlier manual, the Wen Xiu Tang Ben did not contain any boxing theory. It was only in the later Liang Yi Tang Ben that Taijiquan was first mentioned in the Chen family documents and that boxing theory was recorded.

Chen Taijiquan Today

The Lao Jia or Old Frame of Chen style Taijiquan was first promoted by Chen Fa Ke in the early half of this century. The Xin Jia or New Frame, Zhao Bao style and the Hu Lei style all retain close resemblance to each other in terms of how the postures are done. The Yang style, however, varies quite greatly from the other Chen related Taijiquan styles. Given that this was the style first taught by Yang Lu Chan when he returned from the Chen villiage, it would indicated that what he was taught may have differed from the standard Chen syllabus.


However, due to the ecumenical efforts of the current generation of masters, six major styles of Taijiquan are now officially recognised. They are the Chen, Yang, Wu Yu Xiang, Wu Chien Chuan, Sun and Zhao Bao styles. The Hu Lei style is also growing in popularity and may in time be considered a major style.

The 5 greatest promoters of the art today are Feng Zhi Qiang, Wang Xian, Chen Zhen Lei and Chen Xiao Wang and Zhu Tain Cai. Their efforts have spread the practice of Chen Taijiquan throughout the world and continue to serve as inspirations for those who practice it.

The Development Of Yang Style Taijiquan

Taijiquan first became a noted martial art through the prowess and teachings of the founder of the Yang style of Taijiquan, Yang Lu Chan. It was largely through the efforts of the first 3 generations of the Yang family that Taijiquan has such a large following in the world today. The Yang lineage also resulted in three of the five most important schools of Taijiquan today. To them the Taiji communities of today owes a great debt.
Yang Lu Chan, the founder of the Yang style of Taijiquan learnt his art from Chen Chang Xin, a martial arts master from the Chen Village in Wen County, Henan. Chen Chang Xin was versed in his family martial art Pao Chui (Cannon Pounding) and was also a student of Jiang Fa whose master was Wang Tsung Yueh. From this lineage, the art was traced back to the Internal Boxing founded by Chang San Feng, a Taoist residing on Wu Dang Mountain, the founder of Wu Dang martial arts, second in popularity only to the Shaolin school.

Yang Lu Chan’s Teacher Chen Chang Xin

From noted Taiji master and historian Wu Tu Nan’s interview with Chen Xin, a noted Chen family martial artist and historian3. We learn that Chen Chang Xin was teaching his students when Jiang Fa was passing through the village, returning from a visit from his mother in Henan and on his way back to his Tofu store in Shanxi. He happened upon Chen Chang Xin and when he saw how he practiced, he could not help but laugh. Having revealed his presence, he hurried away. Chen Chang Xin took offence at the laughter and persued him, grabbing Jiang’s shoulder from behind. Jiang simply turned around and Chen was thrown to the ground. Realising that he had met a superior martial artist, Chen asked Jiang to accept him as a student. Jiang specified that he would return after three years to teach Chen and he did so.

Because Chen Chang Xin had studied under Jiang Fa, the seniors of the Chen villiage forebade Chen Chang Xin to teach the family art of Pao Chui which they had been famous for several generations, gaining the title `Pao Chui Chen Family’. This may very well be the reason why Chen Chang Xin held his classes at night in his back court yard.
So it would seem that Chen Chang Xin’s martial art would have been part Pao Chui and part Wu Dang Internal Boxing which would lend credence to the common belief first voiced by noted Taiji historian Hsu Chen that the Taijiquan we know today was Chen family Pao Chui softened by input from Jiang Fa4. From early Chen martial arts manuals we can see such a influence. The earlier Wen Xiu Tang Ben martial arts manual does not mention any form called ’13 postures’ or `Taijiquan’. The later Liang Yi Tang Ben is the first to mention the art but calls it in addition to ’13 postures’ also ’13 sections’.

How Yang Lu Chan Learnt The Art

There have been many variations of the storey of how Yang Lu Chan learnt his art from Chen Chang Xin. All are variations of the simple fact that Yang Lu Chan journeyed from Yung Nien southwards to the Chen villiage to eventually study with Chen Chang Xin. The most commonly accepted version is also one that is probably the most credible.

We know that Yang Lu Chan was born poor, a son of a farmer. He loved martial arts and had studied Shaolin Hung Quan6 with a local boxer, building up a good martial arts foundation. One day as he was passing by the Tai He Tang owned by Chen De Hu, a member of the Chen family of the Chen family in Henan, he witnessed an encounter between a shop assistant (who was a member of the Chen family also) and an unruly customer. The customer attacked the shop assistant who dispatched him with ease, causing him to be knocked out the door of the shop. Yang Lu Chan had never seen such an effortless repost before and enquired after Chen De Hu, seeking instruction in this superior martial art.

Chen De Hu disavowed any great knowledge but offered to recommend him to Chen Chang Xin, a great martial arts master in the Chen village. As the Chen family were rather protective about their martial arts, only family members were taught at that time. Chen De Hu wrote a letter recommending Yang Lu Chan as a servant to work for the family so that Yang could learn their martial arts.

Yang travelled there and worked as a servant, earning his room and board and studied martial arts with Chen Chang Xin. As he was an outsider, Yang was not allowed to learn the Chen martial arts. As a servant he was instructed not to go into the back court yard for whatever reason. Yang felt that this was strange but thought nothing of it. One hot and humid night, Yang could not sleep. He got up and went for a walk to relieve the heat. As he walked about the house, he heard strange noises coming from the back court yard. Not able to go into the court yard, he went round the wall surrounding it and found a small hole in the wall, large enough for him to peer through and see what was happening.

He saw Chen Chang Xin instructing a group of students on martial arts and breathing techniques. Excited, Yang watched attentively and then proceeded to practice what he saw alone when he had the spare time. This went on for some time. As a servant Yang often mingled with the members of the Chen family and was treated as a part of the household. One day, some of Chen Chang Xin’s students were practicing and they made some mistakes, Yang corrected them without knowing that Chen was nearby watching. Chen was surprised that Yang knew his art and asked him to explain how he learnt it. Being honest, Yang told Chen how he had come to learn the art. Chen then asked Yang to demonstrate all that he had learnt. After Yang’s demonstration, he sighed that Yang, who did not receive formal instruction but learnt by watching, had learnt more than his students and agreed to accept Yang as a student.

After several years, Yang returned home where upon several local boxers wanted to test his skill since he had spent so much time studying at the Chen villiage. To Yang’s disappointment, he was defeated. Not disheartened, he returned for a second time to the Chen villiage to seek instruction. Chen Chang Xin, seeing Yang’s dedication, taught him more of the art. After several more years, Yang again returned to Yung Nien, again the local boxers wanted to test his skill. This time, though he was not defeated, he did not win easily either. Feeling that there was still room for improvement and that his skills still lacked perfection, Yang journeyed for the third time to the Chen villiage.
Chen Chang Xin was much impressed with Yang’s perserverance and resolved to hold nothing back and teach Yang the whole art. But before doing so, he wanted to test Yang one more time. When Yang came to seek instruction, Chen appeared to be asleep, Yang sat waiting patiently till late in the day when Chen appeared to awake, Chen asked him to return on the morrow, saying that he was too tired to teach him. When Yang arrived the next day, Chen again appeared to be sleeping and again the same thing happened. This went on for several days, on the last day, Chen still appeared to be sleeping but this time his head lolled uncomfortably to one side. Yang used both hands to support his teacher’s head so that he could sleep comfortably, and since Chen apparently slept the whole day, Yang held that tiring position until Chen awoke, Chen again asked Yang to return on the morrow. The next day when Yang arrived at the specified time, a wide awake Chen Chang Xin greeted him and begain teaching him the whole art. After 3 years, Chen told Yang that he had taught him all there was to learn and that he could return to his home town and that he no longer had any opponents who could defeat him.

Yang returned to Yung Nien where he taught martial arts for a living. So great was his skill that he was never defeated. His art was so soft and yielding that people called it `mien quan’ (cotton boxing) or `hua quan’ (neutralising boxing). In all his matches, he never hurt anyone. He also travelled widely, testing his skills and making friends with fellow boxers.

Years later, when Yang was in his middle age, he was recommended to teach in the Imperial Court by one of his students, Wu Yu Xiang (who later founded the Wu Yu Xiang form of Taiji Quan). In the Imperial Court he was tested many times but never defeated, earning the prestigeous title `Yang the Invincible’. He was the martial arts instructor for the Shen Ji Battalion and also taught in Royal Households. So sought after was he that he was also called `Ba Yeh’ (Eight Lords) because eight princes studied under him.

Yang Lu Chan had three sons, the oldest died early. Yang Ban Hou and Yang Jian Hou both studied under their illustrous father who was a harsh taskmaster. So severe was the training that Yang Ban Hou attempted suicide and Yang Jian Hou ran away several times and attempted to become a monk. Yang Ban Hou was an exceptional martial artist, second in skill only to his father. He also earned the title `Yang the Invincible’ for his great skill. Yang Jian Hou was not as gifted as his brother and did not attain as great a level of skill initially but later, through hard work, attained the highest levels of Taiji skill, blending hard and soft to a very high degree. Yang Lu Chan and his two sons all taught in the Imperial Court, their form was identical. Later on, there would be some changes in the form and these will be discussed later.

Taijiquan Gets Its Name

When Yang Lu Chan first taught the art in Yung Nien, his art was referred to as ‘Mien Quan’ or (Cotton Fist) or ‘Hua Quan’ (Neutralising Fist), it was not yet called Taijiquan. Whilst teaching at the Imperial Court, Yang met many challenges, some friendly some not. But he invariably won and in so convincingly using his soft techniques that he gained a great reputation.

Many who frequented the imperial households would come to view his matches. At one such gatherings at which Yang had won against several reputable opponents. The scholar Ong Tong He was present and was so impressed by the way Yang moved and executed his techniques and felt that his movements and techniques expressed the physical manifestation of the principles of Taiji (the philosophy) wrote for him a matching verse:
‘Hands Holding Taiji shakes the whole world,
a chest containing ultimate skill defeats a gathering of heros.’

Thereafter, his art was referred to as Taijiquan and the styles that sprang from his teaching and by association with him was called Taijiquan.

Combat Or Health

Many have said that Yang Lu Chan softened the form to suit the unfit members of the imperial court, making the art easier and less effective, focusing on health aspects because guns were making martial arts obsolete. There is no proof beyond hearsay for this conjecture. Before Yang Lu Chan entered the imperial court, his boxing was already so soft and neutralising that it attained the name `mien quan’ and we have record of a bout where Yang’s skill was questioned because his form was so soft, a bout which he won.

Being in the Imperial Court as a martial arts instructor, it was imperative to turn out students of high attainment. It was literally a matter of life and death since with withholding anything from the Royal family was considered treason. Rather than causing the Yang art to be diluted, it probably added alot more in terms of content due to the opportunity to meet and compare skills with other highly skilled martial artist in the imperial court at that time.

The Old Yang Form

This is the form that was taught by Yang Lu Chan when he began teaching in Yung Nien. It is also the form taught by Yang Ban Hou and Yang Jian Hou initially. This form still exists today, as do several other older sets which were subsequently dropped because they added nothing to the content of the art, their essences having been incorporated into the large frame. These other sets are the Yang 13 Pao Chui set and the Lift Legs form. Though the latter could have come down to us as the Taiji Long Boxing Form.

Yang Lu Chan and his sons taught the small frame in the Imperial Court and taught the large frame outside it. The Small Frame is not an inferior set but a variation of the large frame to allow combat and practice to be performed in the long sleeved, long skirted imperial robes worn by members of the imperial court. This small frame comes down to us today primarily from Yang Ban Hou’s student Quan Yu9 and his son Wu Jian Quan.

The Old Yang Form was also called the `Six Routines’ and the ’13 Postures’. Six Routines because the long form was broken into six seperate routines and practiced as such until the skill attainment and endurance of the students reached a point that they could link all six together into one long routine and practice it as a whole. The Old Yang Form differs only on details with the standardised Yang Form of Yang Cheng Fu. One needs to note that Yang Cheng Fu himself did not standardise the form. Its just that he spread the form so widely that his method of doing the form became the accepted standard.

The Old Yang Form retains the ‘strength explosions’ (Fa-Jing) and jumping kicks (one only). We know that the sequence of the Old Yang Form and the standardised Yang Form is almost the same. From the old manual of Wu Yu Xiang also records a very similar sequence.

It is interesting to note that in this old manual the name `Grasp Sparrow’s Tail’ is used. This points to the fact that the name `Grasp Sparrow’s Tail’ was in use during the early days when Yang Lu Chan first started teaching in Yung Nien. In a later compilation by Li I Yu, the name of the posture is changed to `Lazily Arranging Clothes’ which would indicate a post-Chen Qing Ping date (Wu Yu Xiang travelled to seek out Chen Chang Xin but stayed instead in Zhao Bao Villiage to learn from Chen Ching Ping).

We also note that in the initial handwritten manual (1867) by Li I Yu, in his `Brief Introduction To Taijiquan’ he writes that the founder of Taijiquan was Chang San Feng. But in a later handwritten manual (1881), he amends his Introduction to say that the founder is unknown. This could also reflect a confusion of sources in after the death of Wu Yu Xiang and Yang Lu Chan.

The Later Yang Form


At a later period of time, both Yang Ban Hou and Yang Jian Hou changed their forms slightly and in the same way. We don’t know if the initiator of this slight modification is Yang Lu Chan, though its certainly possible. Some of the changes was the way the `Grasp Sparrow’s Tail’ postures were done and the removal of `Turn Body Double Lift Legs’ and replacing it with `Deflect Downwards, Parry And Punch’ and `Right Kick With Heel’10.
Versions of this form come down to us from Wu Meng Xia who is of the Yang Pan Hou lineage and Wang Yung Quan who is of the Yang Jian Hou lineage. Yang Cheng Fu himself taught this form which retains the strength explosions (Fa-Chin) before he went to Shanghai to teach in public classes.

Yang Cheng Fu’s Later Form

Yang Cheng Fu was invited in 1925 by his student Chen Wei Ming to teach in Shanghai. It was there that Yang Cheng Fu began to teach public classes, prior to that it he had always taught in private classes only.
When Yang Cheng Fu began to teach in public classes he taught them from the basics. He removed the strength explosions (Fa-Chin) and replaced them with using qi to extend the limb instead. This is a basic practice which teaches one to bring qi to power the limb, only after this has been achieved can strength explosions (Fa-Chin) be done properly. He also smoothed out the form to emphasize flow, rootedness and relaxation which is primary to the art. Only after the flow, rootedness and relaxation are mastered can changes in speed take place without losing these qualities. These speed changes are evident in Yang Chen Fu’s Taiji Long Boxing as well as Yang Shao Hou’s small frame.

Other than a few minor variations, his form remained much the same as the Later Yang Form. Yang Cheng Fu travelled extensively throughout China promoting his art. Taijiquan was already well known at that time as a combat art with great curative powers11. Its mode of practice enabled both old and infirmed to take up the art to better their health. Yang Cheng Fu himself was undefeated and was a great boxer, his reputation and ability caused the art to spread far and wide and made it what it is today: the most popular form of Taijiquan in the world.
The great popularity of his form and the huge numbers of people who took it up caused it to become the standard form for Yang Taijiquan. There are those who still practiced the older forms but Yang Cheng Fu’s form became the hallmark of the style. Yang Cheng Fu taught and promoted his art as a combat art. There is little evidence other than conjecture that he promoted his art solely as a health art. Both his books focus on the art as a combat art and his writings all dealt with the practice towards achieving a combative goal. In practicing the art as a combat art, one gained the health benefits as well, both aspects of the art being inseparable.

Yang Cheng Fu’s Advanced Set: Taiji Long Boxing

In addition to the large frame, Yang Cheng Fu also taught an advanced set to be practiced after a high enough level of attainment was reached practicing the large frame. When Yang Cheng Fu began to teach public classes, he dropped this from his public syllabus because this advanced set should only be practiced after learning the large frame. This advanced set was called Taiji Long Boxing. It consisted of 59 postures and is considerably more mobile than the large frame and includes strength explosions (Fa-Chin) as well.

Many advanced combat concepts and practices are incorporated and emphasized in this form. Because its relatively short compared to the large frame, some masters have added additional postures, sometimes resulting in as many as 150 postures. This set is relatively rare today, only a relatively small number of exponents know the form and practice it. Yang Shou Chung, Yang Cheng Fu’s oldest son taught this form in Hong Kong where he resided, his daughters and advanced students continue to carry on the tradition of teaching this advanced set to worthy students.

Yang Shao Hou’s Small Frame Advanced Combat Set

Yang Shao Hou was also invited by Chen Wei Ming to Shanghai to teach at his Zhi Rou Association. Yang Shao Hou taught the large frame during public classes and his large frame was the same as that of his younger brother Yang Cheng Fu.

Later, he began to teach privately in the homes of students who have already learnt the large frame or Wu Chien Chuan’s small frame. In these private advanced classes he would teach an advanced combat set which was later to be referred to as Yang Shao Hou’s Small Frame. He began to teach and practice this set exclusively.

Yang Shao Hou was known to be very combat capable. He had been given to his uncle Yang Pan Hou as a foster son and had gained his uncle’s skill and his temprament. He had also studied with his father and most probably had instruction from his grandfather Yang Lu Chan as well. His advanced Taiji skills included vital striking, bone locking, bone hitting, sinew splitting, control and blocking blood vessels and psychological attack. Those who watched him were in awe of his abilities and aspired to gain them but few could take his harsh training. It is because of this that he only had a handful of students.

His small frame form was also called the `usage frame’ and according to Wu Tu Nan who studied with Yang Shao Hou, this set was created by Yang Lu Chan as a distillation of the essence of Taijiquan. It has elements of both the Old Yang Form and the Small Frame taught by Yang Lu Chan and Yang Pan Hou. Consisting of 73 postures which totals over 200 movements, the form is done very quickly, striving to do the entire set within 2-3 minutes. Even at this great speed the fundamental principles of proper alignment, rootedness, relaxation, continuity of movement, calmness and coordination are not lost. This set can only be properly learnt after mastery of the large frame and its principles.

In order to increase the endurance, strengthen the musculature further and foster proper alignment and root, Yang Shao Hou often made his students practice their postures under a kind of high table which was commonly used in the kitchen for the preparation of food.

Yang Taijiquan Today

It is from Yang Taijiquan that the majority of styles of Taijiquan have developed. Yang Taijiquan continues to be the major style of Taijiquan to be practiced in the world. Sadly, however, many have come to regard it as diluted and devoid of its original martial content. Wang Zhen Nan, a great Internal Boxing expert, once lamented that Internal Boxing was dying out because it did not look strong and some of its practitioners were infusing external techniques into it to make it appear more credible. Fortunately, Taijiquan has had great masters to show that is credible both as a martial art and as a health art.

Yang Taijiquan has not changed all that much since its foundation by Yang Lu Chan, only minor changes have been made to the way its been practiced and its main practice set. Its syllabus is still practiced and still bringing benefits to all who practice it. The Yang family still continues to promote their art vigourously and new generations of teachers are being trained to carry on this glorious tradition.

cara-cara alami menetralkan tubuh kita


1. Jika tenggorokanmu gatal, garuk telingamu

“Jika saraf dekat telinga distimulasi, bisa menciptakan reflek di tenggorokan yang mampu menghasilkan kejang otot” kata Scott Schaffer, M.D., presiden dari pusat spesialis THT di Gibbsboro, New Jersey. “Kejang ini bisa menghilangkan rasa gatal.”


2. Rasakan pendengaran supersonik

Jika anda terjebak di tengah ramainya orang ngobrol di pesta, condongkan tubuh dengan telinga kanan ke depan. Telinga kanan lebih baik daripada telinga kiri dalam hal mengikuti ritme obrolan yang cepat, menurut peneliti dari UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine. Sebaliknya, jika anda ingin mengidentifikasi lagu yang dimainin dengan lembut di elevator, gunakan bagian kiri telinga, ini lebih baik dalam memilah nada musik.


3. Hilangkan rasa sakit

Peneliti Jerman telah menemukan bahwa batuk saat disuntik bisa mengurangi rasa sakit dari jarum suntik. Menurut Taras Usichenko, pengarang ‘mempelajari fenomena’, trik ini menyebabkan kejutan, kenaikan sementara tekanan di dada dan kanal spinal, menahan struktur pengatur rasa sakit di pusat tulang belakang.


4. Longgarkan hidungmu yang mampet

Cara termudah, tercepat, termurah untuk melegakan tekanan sinus adalah tekan lidahmu ke bagian atap mulut, lalu tekan dengan satu jari tempat diantara alis. Ini bisa menyebabkan tulang vomer (tulang tipis yang misahin lubang hidung), yang menghubungkan saluran hidung ke mulut bergerak maju mundur, kata Lisa DeStefano, D.O., asisten profesor di Michigan State University ilmu pengobatan osteopathic. Gerakannya melonggarkan hidung mampet; setelah 20 detik, anda akan merasa sinus berangsur-angsur hilang.


5. Fight fire without water

Penelitian menunjukkan pasien yang tidur miring ke kiri lebih kecil resiko terserang acid reflux. Kerongkongan dan perut berhubungan dengan posisi. Waktu anda tidur miring ke kanan, perut lebih tinggi dari kerongkongan, membuat makanan dan asam perut mengalir ke tenggorokan. Jika miring ke kiri, perut lebih rendah dari kerongkongan.


6. Menyembuhkan sakit gigi tanpa buka mulut

Gosokkan es di bagian belakang telapak tangan, bagian berbentuk huruf V antara jempol dan telunjuk. Peneliti Kanada menemukan tehnik ini mengurangi rasa sakit gigi sebanyak 50 persen dibanding tanpa menggunakan es. Alur saraf di daerah V tersebut menstimulasi daerah otak dan mencegah sinyal rasa sakit ke wajah dan tangan.


7. Make burns disappear

Saat anda menyentuh kompor panas secara tidak sengaja, bersihkan kulit dan berikan pijatan ringan dengan ujung jari lain yang tidak terluka. Es akan mempercepat hilangnya rasa sakit, kata Dr. DeStefano, namun karena hukum alam akan mengembalikan kulit yang terbakar ke suhu normal, kulit akan sedikit melepuh.


8. Stop the world from spinning

Terlalu banyak minum membuat pening? Letakkan tangan pada tempat yang stabil. Bagian telinga yang mengatur keseimbangan, Cupula, mengalirkan cairan dengan densitas yang sama seperti darah. “Saat alkohol mengencerkan darah di cupula, cupula menjadi kurang padat dan naik” kata Dr. Schaffer. Ini membuat otak bingung. This confuses your brain. Sentuhan dari obyek yang stabil memberikan opini kedua, dan anda bisa merasa lebih seimbang. Karena saraf di tangan sangat sensitif.


9. Unstitch your side

Jika anda seperti kebanyakan orang, saat lari, anda menghembuskan nafas saat kaki kanan menyentuh tanah. Ini menyebabkan tekanan ke bawah di bagian liver (yang mana terletak di bagian kanan), dan akan menarik diafragma dan menyebabkan side stitch (suduken basa jawanya, kram perut mungkin indonya), menurut Doctors Book of Home Remedies for Men. Pemecahannya: Hembuskan nafas saat kaki kanan yang menghentak tanah.


10. Stanch blood with a single finger

Jepit hidungmu dan bersandar ke belakang adalah cara terbaik menghentikan mimisan jika kamu nggak keberatan choking on your own O positive. Cara yang lebih enak: Letakkan kapas di bagian upper gums (fleshy tissue which covers the bones of the jaw and the lower portions of the teeth) dibelakang dibagian bawah hidung dan tekan sekuat-kuatnya. “Kebanyakan pendarahan datang dari septum, dinding tulang rawan yang memisahkan hidung” kata Peter Desmarais, M.D., THT specialis di Entabeni Hospital, di Durban, South Africa. “Penekanan disini bisa membantu menghentikan..”


11. Make your heart stand still

Mencoba mengatasi firstdate jitters? Tiup jempolmu. Syaraf vagus, bertugas mengendalikan detak jantung, bisa dikontrol melalui nafas, kata Ben Abo, emergency medical services specialist di University of Pittsburgh. Ini bisa membuat detak jantung kembali normal.


12. Cairkan otak

Terlalu banyak es krim akan membekukan otak, wih…maksudnya ada sensasi pening geto. Tekan lidah ke langit-langit mulut, tutup bagian langit-langit sebanyak yang kamu bisa “Karena syaraf di langit-langit mulut menjadi sangat dingin, tubuh mengira otak anda juga beku” kata Abo. “Hasilnya, overheats, menimbulkan icecream headache.” Semakin banyak tekanan yang anda lakukan,makin cepet loh sakit kepalanya berkurang.


13. Prevent nearsightedness

Jarak pandang yang payah jarang disebabkan faktor genetis, kata Anne Barber, O.D., optometrist dari Tacoma, Washington. “Ini biasanya disebabkan tekanan nearpoint.” Dengan kata lain, melototin layar kompi terlalu lama. Coba trik ini, tutup mata, tegangkan badan, ambil nafas yang dalam, setelah beberapa detik, hembuskan nafas dan regangkan otot pada saat yang bersamaan. Mengencangkan dan menegangkan otot semacam bisep bisa membuat otot lain yang tidak berhubungan seperti otot mata juga ikut relaks.


14. Wake the dead

Jika tangan anda mati rasa saat menyetir atau duduk dengan posisi salah, goyangkan kepala (dugem geleng geleng). Bisa menghilangkan kurang dari semenit, kata Dr. DeStefano. Mati rasa disebabkan tekanan kumpulan syaraf di leher, melonggarkan otot leher menghilangkan tekanan.


15. Impress your friends

Kalau anda ada di pesta coba trik ini, Suruh teman anda berdiri tegak, rentangkan tangan dan posisi telapak tangan menghadap bawah, tetap pada posisi ini. Lalu letakkan dua jarimu di pergelangan tangannya dan dorong ke bawah, temenmu pasti ngelawan. Sekarang buat dia meletakkan satu kaki di tempat yang lebih tinggi beberapa inch (tumpukan buku atau majalah mungkin) dan ulangi yang tadi, hehehe….Dengan membuat posisi pinggang tidak rata, otak menganggap tulang belakang menjadi vulnerable, sehingga menghentikan kemampuan tubuh untuk menghindar, Rachel Cosgrove, C.S.C.S., pemilik Results Fitness, di Santa Clarita, California.


16. Breathe underwater

Jika anda kesusahan mencapai seperempat dari dasar kolam renang, ambil nafas pendek sebelum menyelam sangat penting, hyperventilate (bernafas cepat dan dalam). Saat di dalam air, bukan kekurangan oksigen yang membuat anda ingin bernafas, tapi peningkatan karbon dioksia, yang membuat darah anda asam, dan mengirim sinyal ke otak ada yang tidak beres,” Saat melakukan hyperventilate, aliran oksigen melambatkan aktifitas darah,” kata Jonathan Armbruster, Ph.D., asosiasi profesor biologi di Auburn University. “Ini membuat otak anda berpikir memiliki oksigen berlebih.” Paling tidak menambah lebih 10 detik.


17. Baca Pikiran

Punyamu sendiri tentunya! “Jika anda akan berpidato besok, ulangi sebelum tidur,” kata Candi Heimgartner, instruktur ilmu biologi di University of Idaho. Karena kebanyakan konsolidasi memori terjadi selama tidur, apapun yang and abaca sebelum tidur kebanyakan di encode.

13 T’ai Chi Ch’uan Postures


General Remarks

1.  Ward Off – Peng

2.  Roll Back – Lu

3.  Press – Ji

4.  Push – An

5.  Pull Down – Tsai

6.  Split – Lieh

7.  Elbow – Chou

8.  Shoulder – Kao

9.  Advancing Steps – Jin

10.  Retreating Steps – Tui

11.  Stepping to the Left Side  – Ku

12.  Stepping to the Right Side – Pan

13.  Settling at the Center – Ding


General Remarks


The Thirteeen Postures (8 Gates and 5 Steps) are referred to in various ways by T’ai Chi
Ch’uan authors.  Some call them the “Thirteen Powers = Shi San Shi.”  Others call them
the Thirteen Postures, the Thirteen Entrances, the Thirteen Movements, or the Thirteen

The most frequent references to the 13 Postures are in the writings and teaching in the
Yang Style of T’ai Chi Ch’uan.

The first Eight Gates or Eight Entrances (Ba Gua or Pa Kau) can be divided into the
Four Primary Hands (Ward Off, Pull Back, Press and Push) and the Four Corner Hands
(Pull Down, Split, Elbow and Shoulder).

The first eight (Pua Qua or Ba Gua) of the Thirteen Gates are often associated, for mnenomic
or esoteric purposes, with  the eight basic trigrams used in the Chinese I Ching: Book of Changes.
In the order of the first Eight Gates (Pa-Men), the eight I Ching trigrams are Heaven, Earth,
Water, Fire, Wind, Thunder, Lake, and Mountain.

All thirteen postures, or course, involve some movement of the feet and legs, but the final Five
Gates involve more extensive movements of the feet and legs.  These are collectively referred
to as the Wu-hsing – Five Elemental Phases of Change.  The final five gates are associated
with the 5 elementary processes (Wu-xing) involving:  metal, wood, water, fire, and earth.


Eight Gates
(Eight Stances, Postures, Energies, Ways)


1.   Peng – Ward Off

Peng – Ward Off

Peng Ching (Jing) is outward expanding and moving energy.  It is a quality of responding to incoming
energy by adhering to that energy, maintaing one’s own posture, and bouncing the incoming energy
back like a large inflated rubber ball.  You don’t really respond to force with your own muscular force
to repel, block, or ward off the attack.  Peng is a response of the whole body, the whole posture,
unified in one’s center, grounded, and capable of gathering and then giving back the opponent’s

Peng is aften referred to as a kind of “bouncing” energy.  It is also considered the fundamental
way of delivering energy and embodied in some way in each of the other Eight Gates.
Example of Form movements:  Grasping the Sparrow’s Tail (Ward Off)

“When moving, receiving, collecting, and striking, Peng ching is always used.  It is not easy to complete
consecutive movements and string them together without flexibility.  Pen ching is T’ai Chi boxing’s
essential energy.  The body becomes like a spring; when pressed it recoils immediately.”
–  Kuo, Lien-Ying, “The T’ai Chi Boxing Chronicle,” p. 44


2.   Roll Back  –  Lu

Roll Back – Lu

Lu Ching is receiving and collecting energy, or inward receiving energy.

Form movements:  Grasping the Sparrow’s Tail – Rollback

“Li is the use of force in a sideways direction, such as where we intercept and move with
a forward directed attack, simultaneously diverting it slightly to one side and thus to the
void.   The greater the force of his attack, the greater the resulting loss of balance on
the part of our opponent.”

3.   Press – Ji or C’hi

Press – C’hi, Qi or Ji

Chi or Ji Ching is pressing and receiving energy.
This is an offensive force delivered by following the opponent’s energy, by squeezing
of sticking forward.

Form movements:  Grasping the Sparrow’s Tail – palm pressing on forearm.

“What is the meaning of Pressing Energy?  It functions in two ways: (1) The simplest
is the direct method.  Advance to meet (receive) the opponent, and then adhere and
close in one action, just like in elbowing.  (2) To apply reaction force is the indirect
method.  This is like a ball bouncing off a wall or a coin tossed onto a drumhead,
rebounding off with a ringing sound.”

4.   Push – An

Push – An or On

An Ching is downward pushing energy.
Pushing power comes from the legs pushing into the earth.
Form movements:  Grasping the Sparrow’s Tail, Fair Lady Works the Loom
Pushing or pressing with both palms in a downward direction, peng energy
directed downward.


What is the meaning of An energy?
When applied it is like flowing water.
The substantial is concealed in the insubstantial.
When the flow is swift it is difficult to resist.
Coming to a high place, it swells and fills the place up;
meeting a hollow it dives downward.
The waves rise and fall,
finding a hole they will surely surge in.
–  T’ang Meng-hsien, Song of An


“What is absolutely necessay in the beginning is to follow the imagination.  For instance:
when the two hands form the Push gesture, there is an imagined intent to the front, as
if an opponent was really there.  At this time, within the plams of the hands there is no
ch’i which can be issued.  The practitioner must then imagine the ch’i rising up from the
tan-tien into the spine, through the arms and into the wrists and palms.  Thus, accordingly,
the ch’i is imagined to have penetrated outwards onto the opponent’s body.”
Chen Yen-lin, 1932, Cultivating the Ch’i, Translated by Stuart Alve Olson, 1993


“An Examination of T’ai Chi Push Methods.”  By Hiu chee Fatt.   T’ai Chi: The
International Magazine of T’ai Chi Ch’uan
.  Vol. 27, No. 2, April 2003, pp. 21-25.


“Arn: This posture is normally called to push.  However this is also incorrect as it means
to ‘press’.  This is again a yang attacking movement coming from the whole body issuing
yin and yang Qi into the attacker’s vital points on his chest.  Many make the mistake of
looking after their legs when they hear about not being ‘double weighted’ but neglect their
hands.  Never in Taijiquan is there a two-handed strike or attack using the same power
in each hand at the same time. There is a ‘fa-jing’ shake of the waist causing one hand
to strike just before the other. The hands are firstly yin, then yang thus releasing yang
Qi into the attacker.”

5.   Pull Down – Tsai

Pull Down – Tsai or Cai

Tsai Ching is grabbing energy.
A force delivered by a quick grab and pull, usually of an opponent’s writst,
both backward and down.
Form movements:  Needle at Sea Bottom.

“Tsai: Sometimes called ‘inch energy’.  Like picking fruit off a tree with a snap of the
wrist.  Often on hand will be placed right on top of the other wrist to assist in the power
of this jerking motion.  It is not a pull of his wrist but rather a violent jerking fa-jing movement
that can knock him out by its violent action upon his head jerking backwards and kinking
his brain stem.  Again, the power must come from the centre and not only from the arms
and hands, and a follow up attack is also necessary.”

“Tsoi is where our opponent loses control of his centre of gravity, and we use a technique
to disrupt his balance to such an extent that he is uprooted completely from his position. It
is something like a strategically placed lever lifting a heavy rock.”

6.   Split – Lieh

Split – Lie or Lieh

Lieh Ching is striking energy that splits apart an opponent.

Form movements:
Parting the Wild Horses Mane
Slant Flying
Wild Stork Flashes Its Wings

“Song of Split:
How can we explain the energy of Split?
Revolving like a flywheel,
If something is throw against it,
It will be cast off a great distance.
Whirlpools appear in swift flowing streams,
And the curling waves are like spirals,
If a falling leaf lands on their surface,
In no time will it sink from sight.”
–  “Yang Family Manuscripts,” Edited by Li Ying-ang
“T’ai-chi Touchstones: Yang Family Secret Transmissions,” 1983, p. 33


7.   Elbow – Zhou

Elbow – Zhou or Chou

Chou Ching is elbow striking energy.
Turn and Chop with Fist
“What is the meaning of Elbowing Energy?  The function is in the Five Activities:
advancing, withdrawing, looking-left, gazing right, and fixed rooting.  The yin and yang
are distinguished according to the upper and lower, just like Pulling.  The substantial
and insubstantial are to be clearly discriminated.  If its motion is connected and unbroken,
nothing can oppose its strength.  The chopping of the fist is extremely fierce.  After
thoroughly understanding the Six Energies (adhering, sticking, neutralizing, seizing,
enticing, and issuing), the functional use is unlimited.”

8.   Shoulder – Kao

Shoulder – Kao

Kao Ching is a full body strinking energy.  The peng energy is mobilized throughout the entire
body, and then the entire body is used as one unit and the force is delivered with the shoulder
or back.

Football players are familiar with this use of energy.


Five Steps
(5 Steps, Directions, Footwork Techniques, Movements)  –  Wu Bu


Nimble, responsive, and coordinated footwork is essential to success in all styles of martial arts.
Taijiquan requires precise footwork and legwork.  The placement and movement of the legs and
feet as they relate to the powerful and coordinated application of energy in Tai Chi stances and
postures gets extra attention by Taijiquan teachers in form work, drills, and push hands.


“In Chinese martial arts, Bu is a general term referring to stance and foot/leg work. If we keep in mind
our general definition for the Shi San Shi or the 13 Powers, an ideal translation for Wu Bu might be
something like: “powers based on the five stages of footwork” or, “the five implicit behaviors of the
stance” or even (considering the interactive nature of the Wu Xing), “the five innate powers and
conditions arising from the natural cycle of stages within the stance”.  It is the inherent behaviors,
strengths and stages that are the subject in the Wu Bu, not the shape or position of the stance as
such. The innate conditions for power in stance work. We are also referring to the cyclical way in
which these powers emerge and dissolve. Also, as importantly, we are speaking of the natural
constraints inherent in the legwork.”

“Wubu are the five footwork skills. Wu means five. Bu means step. In fact it is more about Shenfa – body
movement skills because footwork and body movement have a very tight relationship.  They should be
combined together.  It is said “the body follows steps to move and steps follow the body to changed”,
“Body movement and footwork skills cannot be forgotten. If any of these is omitted, one does not need
to waste his time practicing any more.” The body movement skills and footwork skills are about how to
move the body in fighting. Only when the body can move to the right position (distance and angle), can
the hand skills work well. Thus, it is said Wubu is the foundation of Bafa.”

The association of various Kicks with the Five Stepping Movements (9th to 13th Gates) is based solely
upon a kickboxing training regiment that I use while doing walking or running exercises.  The associations
are my own, and, to my knowledge, have no connection whatsover to traditional stepping theory in internal
boxing.  Tai Chi Chuan does use front heel kicks, toe kicks, jump kicks, sweeping kicks, and knee strikes.
The Five Stepping Movements (i.e., forward, backward, to the left, to the right, and staying in place) all
primarily involve movements of the legs and feet, with little emphasis upon the arms or hands.  When kicking,
the arms are used to balance the body, facilitate the control, power, or speed of the kicks, and  to have the
arms in a defensive position.  It seems to me appropriate to associate kicking techniques with the Five
Stepping Movements.  In Tai Chi Chuan practice, kicking is done slowly, effortlessly, gently, and smoothly;
and considerable balance and strength are required to extend the legs fully, slowly, and in strict form.  In
kick boxing practice the kicks are done with much more speed and power.  These are the Yin and Yang
approaches to kicking; and, both approaches are needed by martial artists.


9.   Advancing Steps – Jin

Advancing Steps, Stances, and Looking (Jin Bu)

Brush Knee and Twist Step

Generally speaking, when moving forward, step forward with your heel first.  Carefully transfer
weight to the forward foot, while being prepared to retreat the step as needed.

” This step is one of the main stepping methods of Taijiquan. The front foot is placed down on its heel, then as
the body moves forward, the toes are placed.  However, the weight does not come any more forward than the
middle of the foot. The thighs and knees are curved and collecting while the rear thigh is less curved than the
front.  We never retreat in Taijiquan and we can do this because of this stepping method.  The rear foot controls
the waist in yielding and throwing away the attacker’s strength.  The waist is controlled during this step by the
rear foot.  There is an old Taijiquan saying: “To enter is to be born while to retreat is to die”. So we never retreat,
we rely upon the rear leg controlling the waist for our power and evasiveness without moving backward.”

Consider the advance movements in heel kicks and toe kicks with the right or left leg.

Forward movement is associated with the Element Metal.


10.   Retreating Steps – Tui

Retreating Steps, Stances, and Looking Back (Tui Bu)
Step Back and Repulse Monkey

Generally speaking, when moving backward, step backward with your toe first.  Carefully
transfer weight to the backward moving foot, while being prepared to return the foot
forward as needed.

Conside the turning backward set up for a back kick with either the right or left legs.

Backward movement is assocated with the Element Wood.


11.   Stepping to the Left Side After Faking Right – Ku

Left Side Moving Steps, Stances, after Gazing to the Right (You Pan) or faking to the right.
Rolling on one foot

Parting the Wild Horse’s Mane
Waving Hands Like Clouds
Strike the Tiger
Deflect, Parry and Punch
Single Whip

Toe kicks with the left leg.
Heel kicks with the left leg.
Sweeping kicks with the left leg.
Jumping kicks with the left leg.
Side kicks with the left leg
Spinning kicks with the left leg.

Movement to the left and looking to the left is associated with the Element Water.


12.   Stepping to the Right Side after Faking Left – Pan

Right Side Moving Steps, Stances, after Looking to the Left (Zou Gu) or faking left.
Rolling on one foot

Parting the Wild Horse’s Mane
Strike the Tiger
Brush Knee and Twist Step
Slant Flying

Toe Kicks with the right leg
Heel Kicks with the right leg
Sweeping kicks with the right leg.
Jumping kicks with the right leg.
Side kicks with the right leg.
Spinning kicks with the right leg.

Movement to the right is associated with the Element Fire.


“Song of Look-Right:
Feigning to the left, we attack to the right
with perfect Steps.
Stricking left and attacking right,
we follow the opportunities.
We avoid the frontal and advance from the side,
seizing changing conditions.
Left and right, full and empty,
our technique must be faultless.”
–  “Yang Family Manuscripts,” Edited by Li Ying-ang
“T’ai-chi Touchstones: Yang Family Secret Transmissions,” 1983, p. 37


“Gu (or Zuogu – left look around) means to go forward sideways; that really means to close up to the opponent
indirectly.  Here Zuo (left) means sideway; Gu (look around) means look after or being careful. Usually in martial
arts this term means defensiveness within attacking skills. So the main idea of Zuogu is how to rotate and advance
forward from sideway with some defense skills. It is usually called rotate attack. It is wood which means straight
and grow up continually.  It belongs to Ganjin (Liver Channel). When the key point Jiaji is focused on, the qi will
automatically urge the body to rotate and advance forward.”

13.   Settling at the Center – Ding

Settling at the Center, Rooting Stances, and Holding Still – Zhong Ding

Golden Cock Stands on Right Leg – Left Knee Strike
Golden Cock Stands on Left Leg – Right Knee Strike
Needle at Sea Bottom
Fair Lady Works the Shuttles

Centering, holding to one’s center, maintaining equilibrium, settling, moving downward,
and staying balanced at one’s center are associated with the Element Earth.

Knee strikes with the right or left knee.

Tai Chi Chuan – Yang-style Short Form


(simplified Chinese: 太 极 拳 traditional Chinese: 太 極 拳 pinyin: tàijíquán)

I’ve been practicing Yang-style Tai Chi since 1991. Lately, I’ve felt that even with the explosion of information available on the Internet, that there are still not enough step-by-step explanations of martial arts forms.

There are precious few books that provide detailed information about forms, with clear pictures and instructions. For those few that have clear instructions, fewer have applications, and none I’ve seen show alternative explanations (although I hear that Elmar Schmiesser’s book on karate kata applications is a very notable exception).

Even with those qualities, better still would be a “living” document to which applications and explanations can be added and expanded over time. That is the ultimate objective of this effort.

Wikipedia has a typically comprehensive article on the history and various styles of Tai Chi.

There are as many Tai Chi forms as there are teachers. While there are many wrong ways to do a given form, there are also often many right ways that are different from each other. It’s easy to get caught up in debates about what is the “best” way to do a movement. Better is to pick a style and a teacher and stick with that approach, at least for several years.

In all the movements, the body leads the arms. The arms move relatively little. They are usually in front of the body. Turn the hips and let the arms follow. Push the body forward from the heels when pressing forward, then let the arms follow in pressing forward to the target.

Move as though under water. Let the momentum of your body movements toss your arms into place. Imagine your arms as large strands of kelp flowing with the waves.

When there are techniques with an open hand, spread the fingers and thumb slightly so they are relaxed and not touching each other.

Try to let the elbows and shoulders drop. Let the head, neck and spine be vertical from the crown of the head to the tip of the coccyx. Imagine you are a marionette and the puppetteer’s strings are connected to your head wrist and feet only. All other joints just fall into place.

When stepping, make sure that at all points you can stop motionless with your stepping foot above the ground. This is very different from normal, everyday walking or running where the center of gravity goes forward of the supporting foot even before the leading foot hits the ground. Until the leading foot touches the ground, it should be under your complete control. It should also be inaudible when it touches the ground, rather than landing with a sound as normal stepping does. Imagine (or even try this if you can), wearing hard-soled tap dance shoes on a tile floor. You should be able (with much practice) to step silently.

At first, it is likely that your thigh muscles will not have the strength to stay in a low stance comfortably for the entire form. If you practice the whole form several times a day, slowly, in gradually lower stances, your muscles will become much stronger. Initially, when fatigued, they may even shake. This is normal. Of course, if you have joint injuries, be careful, and do not make stances so deep they cause any sharp pain. However, barring injury, you should strive for stances that are as low as your ankle flexibility will allow. It’s common to see pictures of great masters doing tai chi with high stances. It’s not necessary to do low stances to do correct tai chi. But rest assured those masters did extremely low stances when they were younger, to strengthen their legs, and learn all the dynamics of a powerful form.

Let your eyes follow the hand that is doing the next technique until it hits its target. Notice how in step 8 how the eyes follow first the right hand, then the left. While the eyes may look right or left, notice how the head stays facing straight ahead, generally in line with the direction the torso is facing (play guitar is a slight exception to this however).

It is traditional (although not necessary) to face south while doing tai chi. I find it most natural to face an open area with something behind me (which is arguably a good martial application), or to face the direction of the sun.

1. Preparation (预 备). Begin with heels together and toes apart. You should have only as much muscular tension as needed to hold any particular position. Legs should start straight but without the knees locked. To start the form, bend your knees and drop your weight while keeping the torso vertical. Step out with your left foot one shoulder width. Position the left foot so that the inside edge of your foot faces directly to the front, rather than on a diagonal as in the initial posture. Shift your weight to the left foot, then turn the right foot in so that it is also pointing forward. Then shift your weight evenly onto both feet.

2. Beginning (起 式). Raise arms out in front to shoulder height as you straighten your knees somewhat. Then bend elbows and drop your weight. Imagine pushing a beach ball down into the water.

3. Hold the ball. Shift weight onto your left foot then step out with the right. Be sure not to step out so that your feet are in one line, but rather a shoulder width apart when the posture is viewed from the front. Position your hands as if holding a beach ball, with the right hand above. The hands should be centered left to right in relation to your torso. The right hand should be level with the top of your sternum and the left hand at the level of the dan tien, just below the navel.

4. Ward off left. Bring your left foot up to your right, with the toe barely touching the ground. Then step out to the front, shoulder width apart and a little more than shoulder width back to front. Step out with the heel touching the ground first. Bring the left hand up to chest height, passing in front of the right hand, to end with palm facing you. At the same time the right hand travels down to end to the right and in front of your hip, with palm down. When your weight is mostly on your left foot, turn the toes of the right foot toward the front, pivoting on the heel. Twist your hips to the left to end up facing front.

5. Grasp swallow’s tail (拦 雀 尾). Bring right foot to left, then step out with the right foot. The right palm turns up while the left palm turns down. Bring the hands to the same height with the left fingers pointing into the right palm. Shift weight onto the right foot, continuing to turn the waist to the right. Forearms continue to rotate until the right palm faces away from you, and the left hand ends palm up under the right elbow. Although the feet face to the right, the waist and torso face even farther around to the right rear.

6. Withdraw and press. Shift weight back onto the left foot as you drop the left hand. The right remains where it is. Turn your waist to face front as the left hand circles up to chest height. Bring the right hand back slightly towards your body to meet the left as it presses forward. Position the right hand horizontal and the left hand vertical. The hands should fit together at the heel of each palm. Press both hands forward as you shift your weight onto your right foot.

7. Push. Shift weight back to your left foot while bending the arms. Then shift weight onto the right foot while pushing out with the hands. Feel yourself push from the heel of your left foot, as though pushing a stalled car or some very heavy object.

8. Single whip (单 鞭). This is one of the most complicated moves of Tai Chi and is its most iconic posture. Shift your weight to the left foot, while straightening the wrists. Leave the right arm in place as your turn to the left. Turn the left palm up and bring the right hand into a “beak” with fingers together, wrist loose and palm facing downward. For a moment, the beak should point into the palm of the left hand. As you are shifting weight onto the left foot, turn the right foot to the front. Then shift weight to the right foot and step out with the left. The right arm gradually extends out to the right side at shoulder height, while the left palm turns outward and presses forward as you shift weight onto the left foot. As your weight shifts to the left foot, turn the right foot so that it faces nearly forward.

9. Play guitar. Bring the right foot in line with the left heel, facing to the front. Barely rest the right heel on the ground with the toes raised. Palms roughly face each other with the right higher than the left. Imagine squeezing an object between your forearms.

10. Shoulder strike. Turn to the left and withdraw the right foot. Place the left hand into the crook of the right elbow. Drop the right arm with the palm facing out to your right while stepping forward and putting weight onto the right foot.

11. White crane spreads wings (白 鹤 凉 翅). Turn to the left and bring the left foot in line with the right heel. Unlike the play guitar posture, this time rest the left big toe slightly on the ground, rather than the heel. The right arm raises up and pushes slightly forward, as if warding off a punch to the face, as the left hand decends to finish just diagonally left and forward of the hip, palm down.

12. Brush knee and twist (左 搂 膝 拗 步). The right hand drops, circling down to the waist before rising again to shoulder level while you turn to the right. At the same time, the left hand comes up to face level, as though blocking a punch to the face off to the right side. Step out with the left foot, and shift weight onto it, while the left hand continues a circle to diagonally in front of the left hip, and the right hand presses forward, palm out.

13. Play guitar. Shift weight back to the right foot and raise the toes of the left foot to leave it lightly resting on the heel. Bring hands, palms facing each other, into play guitar posture, as before, although this time it is a mirror image or the previous posture.

14. Brush knee and twist (左 搂 膝 拗 步). Repeat of step 12.

15. Play guitar. Repeat of step 13.

16. Brush knee and twist (左 搂 膝 拗 步). Repeat of step 12.

17. Parry and punch (进 步 搬 拦 捶). Along with single whip, this is another rather complicated movement. Shift weight back to the right foot while making a fist with the right hand and dropping it to next to the right hip. Turn the left toes out. Continue circling the right fist over to meet the left hand as you shift weight onto the left foot. The hands nearly touch, with the left palm facing to the right, and the palm of the right fist facing up. Let both hands circle to the right as you step onto the right foot, placed with the toes facing out. The hands separate once they reach the right side of the body. The right fist continues to circle down to the right hip as you step out with the left foot, toes facing straight ahead. The left hand pushes slightly back to the left side, as you punch and shift weight onto the left foot. When at the right hip, the palm of the right fist faces upward. The fist then twists to become vertical at the point of impact. Hands are roughly an inch apart at the end of the movement. Note that while many martial arts styles punch with the fist ending palm down, the tai chi punch has a vertical fist.

18. Push. Repeat of step 7.

19. False ending (如 封 似 闭). Shift weight back to the right foot and turn the left toes in and to to the front as you bend the elbows and hands come back towards the face, palms facing out. The elbows should lead the hands. The hands make a big circle out to the sides and back to the waist as you shift weight back onto the left foot and withdraw the right foot so that feet are together. The hands cross at the crook of the wrist, with the right below and outside of the left as you step out to the side with the right foot.


20. Closing (收 式). When learning the form, this is a good place to stop and finish the form. Make sure you can do the whole set of movements so far naturally and correctly, without thinking. Then move on to learning the rest of the form. Let the hands drop, palms down, as though pressing a ball into the water. Turn the right toes out, then shift weight to the right foot and bring the left heel, toes facing out, together with the right heel. Let the wrists straighten and hands circle down so that fingers are lightly touching the thighs.

13 Pendekar Kungfu Yang Berkontribusi Besar Di Dunia Kungfu


Kung fu adalah ilmu bela diri dari Tiongkok. Akan tetapi, arti kata kung fu yang sebenarnya memiliki makna luas, yakni sesuatu yang didapat dalam waktu yang lama dan dengan ketekunan yang sungguh-sungguh.


Kungfu mempunyai sejarah dan tradisi ilmu bela diri yang sangat panjang, ketat, teruji dan efektif sejak 5000 tahun yang lalu bersamaan dengan munculnya aliran kepercayaan Dao (Taoisme) yang kelak akan berkembang menjadi agama khusus.


Pada tahun 2500-an, mulai bermunculan berbagai aliran Kungfu yang melegenda hingga kini, dimulai dari Kuil Shaolin (Siaw Liem Sie), Wudang (Butong), Omei (Emei-Gobi), Kun Lun, Huasan, Thian San, Khongtong dan lain-lain. Secara umum, terdapat 100 lebih aliran Kungfu dan ribuan jurus serta berbagai jenis ilmu yang unik dan aneh, mulai dari yang paling keras dan ganas (external arts) hingga ilmu yang paling lembut dan ringan seperti kapas (internal arts).


Para Pendekar Kungfu masa lalu yang terkenal memberikan kontribusinya dalam Dunia Kungfu antara lain :


1)Bodhidharma (Da Mo/Tat Mo atau Daruma dalam bahasa Jepang).

Beliau adalah Pendeta spiritual Zen Budha dari India yang bertapa 9 tahun di Kuil Shaolin dan Pencipta berbagai jenis ilmu legendaris seperti : Ilmu Perubahan Urat & Otot (Yi Jin Jing/I Chin Ching), 9 Matahari (Kiu Yang Cin Keng), 5 Jurus Hewan, Jari Zen, dll. Namun sayangnya, beberapa diantara ilmu tersebut sudah lenyap. Konon pada saat menyebrang lautan hingga ke Tiongkok, Beliau hanya berdiri diatas sebatang dahan kecil dan gua tempat pertapaan Bodhidharma meninggalkan bayangan lekuk tubuhnya pada saat bermeditasi di tembok gua hingga kini. Selama bermeditasi 9 tahun di gua tersebut, Bodhidharma mampu mendengar pembicaraan berbagai jenis mahluk hidup seperti semut misalnya.


2. Thio Sam Hong

Di masa mudanya, Thio Sam Hong adalah murid yang sangat berbakat di Kuil Shaolin. Karena diberlakukan semena-mena oleh para senior, Beliau keluar dari Kuil Shaolin dan belajar mengembangkan Kungfu sendiri dengan memperhatikan berbagai fenomena alam seperti terpaan angin keras terhadap pohon bambu, pertarungan bangau dan ular, kokohnya pertahanan belalang sembah dari terpaan angin dan lain-lain. Setelah mengerti & memahami Intisari Alam Semesta, Thio Sam Hong muda menyepi di gunung Hua San untuk menyempurnakan ilmu-ilmunya.

Pada saat Beliau turun gunung, Beliau menjelajahi seluruh Tiongkok dan mengadu ilmunya dengan para Ahli Bela Diri dan/atau Pendekar semua aliran. Berdasarkan literatur kuno, tercatat 2 pertarungan yang sangat terkenal, yakni pertama adalah pertarungan antara Thio Sam Hong dengan Pegulat Nomor 1 (Satu) Mongol yang sangat besar, kuat dan agresif. Belakangan diketahui pula bahwa Pegulat tersebut juga sangat ahli dalam berbagai aliran Kungfu Tiongkok. Pegulat Mongol tersebut konon mengalahkan banyak petarung Kuil Shaolin dan sejumlah Pendekar aliran keras lainnya. Pertarungan antara Thio Sam Hong dengan Pegulat Mongol tersebut dimenangkan oleh Thio Sam Hong dengan ilmu barunya, Tai Chi! Pertarungan kedua adalah seorang diri Thio Sam Hong mengalahkan lebih dari 100 orang gangster di sarang penyamun hanya dengan tangan kosong! Semenjak itu, Thio Sam Hong diakui oleh seluruh kalangan persilatan menjadi Pendekar Tanpa Tanding pada saat itu.

Setelah merasa cukup dalam perantauanya, Beliau naik ke gunung Wudang (Butong) dan mendirikan Perguruan Wudang dengan basis utama pengajaran : Taoisme. Thio Sam Hong sendiri diyakini merupakan Pencipta Ilmu Tai Chi pertama dan sangat Ahli dalam Ilmu Tao Yin (Nei Kung). Konon Thio Sam Hong hidup di 3 (tiga) jaman (Immortal Taoist)dinasti,yakni Dinasti Sung, Dinasti Yuan (Monggol) dan Dinasti Ming (Han).


3. Yue Fei

Beliau adalah Jenderal Patriot yang terkenal dari Dinasti Sung (960-1279) dan hingga akhir hayatnya tetap setia membela negara walaupun difitnah dan dihukum mati oleh penguasa lalim. Jenderal Yue Fei adalah pencipta Kungfu Internal dan eksternal, yakni : Hsing – I (Xing Yi) dan Eng Jiaw (Cakar Elang). Selain ahli dalam pertarungan tangan kosong, Jenderal Yue Fei juga ahli dalam 18 senjata Shaolin khususnya tombak tunggal.

Konon ilmu tombaknya setara dengan ilmu tombak Keluarga Yang (Ilmu tombak Keluarga Yang merupakan ilmu silat keluarga turun temurun yang sangat khas dan tinggi serta hanya sedikit Ahli/Pendekar yang mampu menandingi ilmu mereka pada jamannya. Berdasarkan catatan kuno, diketahui bahwa ilmu tombak tingkat tinggi Keluarga Yang mempunyai sejumlah keistimewaan, yakni : Ilmu Tombak Melekat/Berpilin dan Ilmu Tombak (Toya) Naga Perkasa yang mampu melumpuhkan/membunuh lawan tanpa menyentuh fisik.

Catatan : Keluarga Yang merupakan patriot sejati Dinasti Sung yang tetap setia hingga akhir kejatuhan Dinasti Sung oleh Monggol). Kungfu Hsing I sendiri sempat lenyap dari dunia persilatan pasca meninggalnya Jenderal Yue Fei hingga sampai ditemukan kembali Kitab Kungfu Hsing I peninggalan Jenderal Yue Fei menjelang akhir Dinasti Ming oleh Ji Long Feng (Ji Jike). Kemudian Ji Long Feng menurunkan Kungfu Hsing I ke Keluarga Ma, Cao Ji Wu dan lain-lain hingga akhirnya muncul Kuo Yun Shen dan Sun Lutang sebagai ahli-ahli Kungfu Hsing I yang luar biasa.


4. Lima Leluhur Shaolin

Pasca pembakaran Kuil Shaolin dalam pertempuran kedua antara para Pendeta Kuil Shaolin dengan 50.000 Tentara Qing bersenjata lengkap dan modern yang dibantu para Lhama Tibet dan Praktisi Pak Mei (White Eyebrow). Kelima leluhur tersebut adalah : a) Choi Tak-Chung (蔡德忠) b) Fong Tai-Hung (方大洪) c) Ma Chiu-Hing (馬超興) d) Wu Tak-Tai (胡德帝) e) Lee Sik-Hoi (李式開) Berdasarkan literatur lama, disebutkan bahwa Kuil Shaolin hancur total dan terbakar selama 40 hari 40 malam dalam serangan tersebut.

Seluruh catatan kuno ribuan tahun termasuk sejumlah ilmu Kungfu legendaris dan senjata pusaka hilang atau habis terbakar. Dari ribuan Biksu dan non Biksu Shaolin, hanya 5 orang yang lolos dari serangan tersebut dan kemudian mereka menyebar keseluruh Tiongkok sembari menyebarkan Shaolin Kungfu serta perlawanan anti Dinasti Qing. Kehancuran Kuil Shaolin diakibatkan oleh adanya pengkhianatan oknum Shaolin yang ternyata adalah antek-antek Dinasti Qing yang menyusup dan menabur racun diberbagai titik sumber air dan makanan para Bhiksu.

Pada saat serangan kedua tersebut, kondisi fisik yang keracunan telah menyebabkan hilangnya kemampuan bertarung para Bhiksu dan Non Bhiksu Shaolin. Dalam pertarungan pertama, para Petarung Kuil Shaolin berhasil mengusir puluhan ribuan tentara Dinasti Qing yang bersenjata lengkap. Kegagalan dalam serangan pertama tersebut, membuat Kaisar Qing di puncak kemarahan. Sang Kaisar mengumpulkan tentara-tentara terbaik dari setiap legiun dan merekrut seluruh ahli bela diri Kungfu (termasuk para Lhama Tibet dan Praktisi Pak Mei) yang loyal kepada Dinasti Qing untuk bersama-sama menyerbu Kuil Shaolin serta menpersiapkan strategi penyusupan/perusakan dari dalam Kuil Shaolin.

Dikemudian hari, 5 Leluhur Shaolin ini identik pula dengan 5 Tokoh Utama yang terkenal, yakni : a) Hung Hei-Koon 洪熙官 Hóng Xīguān/Hung Hei Gun, Pencipta Kungfu Hung Gar Hung Hei Koon adalah murid utama dari Bhiksu Gee Sin Sim See. Beliau terkenal sebagai Ahli Gung Gee Fok Fu Kuen (Siu Lum Fook Fu Kuen)dan Cakar Harimau Sejati. Jurus cakar harimaunya terkenal sangat ganas dan bertenaga. Kebanyakan korban keganasan jurus Hung Hei Koon adalah para tentara Qing dan antek-antek Manchu. b) Lau Sam-Ngan 劉三眼 Liú Sānyǎn/Lau Sam Ngan. Pencipta Kungfu Lau Gar Beliau dikenal dengan julukan “Lau si 3 Mata” c) Choi Kau-Yee 蔡九儀 Cài Jiǔyí/Choy Gau Yi, Pencipta Kungfu Choi Gar d) Lee Yau-San 李友山 Lǐ Yǒushān/Li Yau San, Pencipta Kungfu Lei Gar. Beliau adalah Guru dari Chan Heung, Pencipta Kungfu Choi Lei Fut e) Mok Ching-Kiu 莫清矯 Mò Qīngjiǎo/Mok Ching Giu, Pencipta Kungfu Mok Gar


5. Wong Fei Hung

Beliau adalah Ahli Kungfu, Pendiri Rumah Obat Pho Chi Lam dan sekaligus Shinshe Akunpuntur yang sangat terkenal dengan berbagai jenis ilmu Kungfu seperti : Ilmu Pasangan Harimau dan Bangau, Tendangan Tanpa Bayangan, Toan Ta, Toya 8 Diagram dan lain-lain. Murid-murid Beliau yang sangat terkenal antara lain : Lam Sai Wing, Leung Fong, Tang Fung dan Lin Wan Gai. Wong Fei Hung merupakan anak dari Wong Kei Ying, salah satu Pesilat terkenal dari “10 Harimau Kanton”.

Pada masa hidupnya, Wong Fei Hung terkenal dengan berbagai pertarungan baik dengan para pesilat lokal maupun petarung asing demi mempertahankan “China’s Pride” yang pada saat itu jatuh hingga ke titik terendah. 2 (Dua) pertarungan yang sangat terkenal adalah pada saat Wong menjatuhkan lebih dari 50 orang pesilat gangster/bajak laut di pelabuhan hanya dengan sebatang toya dan pertarungan kedua adalah pada saat Beliau bersama dengan Liu Yong Fu berperang langsung dengan tentara Jepang di Taiwan.

Beliau sendiri merupakan murid langsung dari Pengemis Sakti So (Beggar So), Lam Fuk Sing dan ayahnya sendiri yang notabene adalah anak dari Wong Tai, murid langsung Luk Ah Choi, Ahli Kungfu Hung Gar dan sekaligus murid langsung dari Biksu Shaolin terkenal : Gee Sin Sim See, Li Bak Fu & Hung Hei Koon.


6. Hua Yan Jia (Fok Yuen Gap)

Beliau adalah Pendiri Chin Woo Athletic Association yang hingga kini telah tersebar lebih dari 50 cabang di USA, Kanada, Argentina, Peru, Makau, Hongkong, China, Jepang, Wales, Selandia Baru, Srilanka, Vietnam, Australia, Singapura, Thailand, Malaysia dan lain-lain. Beliau merupakan Pendekar Kungfu yang terkenal sangat nasionalis dan juga lahir dari keluarga pesilat aliran Huo. Pada masa hidupnya, baik Beliau maupun muridnya Liu Zhensheng terkenal sebagai Pendekar Kungfu yang banyak mengalahkan berbagai praktisi aliran beladiri dari berbagai negara seperti pegulat, petinju, Pejudo dan Karateka dari Rusia, Inggris dan Jepang. Huo Yan Jia meninggal pada umur 42 pada tahun 1910 dan berdasarkan hasil otopsi Tianjin Municipality Police Laboratory, ditemukan racun arsenik dalam tubuh Huo. Para petinggi Chin Woo dan Dokter pemeriksa menduga bahwa racun tersebut terkait dengan hasil pertarungan terakhir dengan Japanesse Judo Association (“JJA”) yang berakibat banyaknya anggota JJA yang menderita kekalahan atau luka fatal di matras pertarungan

7)Keluarga Chen, Chen Fa Ke

salah satu penerus Tai Chi aliran Chen yang sangat terkenal pada masa hidupnya karena tidak ada satupun lawan yang dapat mengalahkannya. Banyak Ahli Bela Diri baik aliran keras maupun lembut serta berbagai aliran Bela Diri lain yang mengakui bahwa Chen Fa Ke adalah Pesilat Tak Terkalahkan pada jamannya.


8)Keluarga Yang, Yang Lu Chan (Yang Fu Kui).

Beliau adalah Pendiri Tai Chi aliran Yang. Pada masa hidupnya, Beliau juga terkenal sebagai Pendekar dengan julukan “Yang Wu Di = Yang Tak Terkalahkan”. Keturunan Beliau dan penerusnya yang sangat terkenal antara lain : Yang Chien Hou, Yang Shao Hao, Yang Cheng Fu & Chen Man Ching. Ilmu Tai Chi Yang Lu Chan sendiri terkenal dengan sejumlah julukan, yakni Mien Quan (Cotton Fist)dan Hua Quan (Neutralising Fist).


9) Kuo Yun Shen (Guo Yun Shen/Yu Sheng)

Terkenal dengan ilmu silatnya dan Nei Kung yang sangat tinggi. Beliau adalah ahli Kungfu Hsing – I (Xing Yi). Kuo Yun Shen dijuluki “Ban Bu Peng Kuo” karena terkenal dengan penguasaan ilmu Peng Quan (“Crushing Fist”) yang sempurna, salah satu ilmu dari 5 Elemen Hsing I). Konon Ilmu Tapak Kapasnya mampu merontokkan tubuh lawan cukup hanya dengan menyentuhnya. Kuo Yun Shen pernah menepuk 10 batubata dengan lembut dan semuanya hancur terburai. Beliau sendiri adalah murid terbaik dari Master Li Luoneng dan tidak pernah terkalahkan oleh siapapun pada jamannya. Hanya satu orang yang dapat mengimbangi Master Kuo Yun Shen, yakni Tung Hai Chuan dalam pertarungan sengit selama 3 hari 3 malam yang berakhir seri dan akhirnya mereka menjadi sahabat baik yang saling bertukar ilmu Kungfu.


10)Sun Lutang (Sun Fu Quan)

Beliau adalah Pencipta Tai Chi aliran Sun dan terkenal sebagai Ahli Hsing I dan Bagua. Beliau merupakan murid dari berbagai Ahli Kungfu seperti Bhiksu Wu, Kuo Yun Shen, Li Kui Yuan, Cheng Ting Hua (Ahli Baguazhang), Hao Wei Chen (Ahli Wu Yu Xiang Tai Chi) dan lain-lain. Julukan Beliau adalah : “Pendekar Kepala Harimau” dan “Lebih Pintar daripada Monyet Aktif”.


11) Tung Hai Chuan (Dong Haichuan)

adalah pencipta ilmu Baguazhang (Zhuanzhang)dan terkenal tidak terkalahkan pada jamannya. Salah satu pertarungan terkenalnya adalah pertarungan 3 hari 3 malam dengan Master Kuo Yun Shen yang berakhir seri. Selain ahli Baguazhang, Beliau juga ahli dalam ilmu Bafanshan, Hongquan, Xingmengquan, Jinggangquan, Erlangquan dan Lohanquan.


12. Yip Man (Ip Man)

Yip Man (Ip Man) merupakan salah satu ahli Kungfu Wing Chun ternama dan terkenal sebagai Pesilat yang tak terkalahkan namun sangat “low profile”. Beliau merupakan murid langsung dari Chan Wah Sun, Ng Chung Sok & Leung Bik (anak dari Leung Jan). Selama di Foshan, Tiongkok, Beliau mempunyai beberapa murid yang terkenal antara lain : Lok Yiu, Chow Kwong Yue,Kwok Fu, Lun Kai,Chan Chi Sun dan Lui Ying. Pada saat di Hongkong, sejumlah murid Beliau yang terkenal adalah Leung Sheung, Lok Yiu, Chu Song Tin, Wong Shun Leung, Lo Man Kam dan Li Siau Lung (Bruce Lee).


13. Bruce Lee (Lee Jun Fan/Lee Siau Lung).

Praktisi Wing Chun dan Pendiri Jeet Kune Do (Intercepting Fist). Beliau adalah aktor sekaligus seniman bela diri yang berangkat dari hobi perkelahian jalanan bahkan dengan anggota2 geng mafia. Pada masa hidupnya, Beliau terkenal dengan sejumlah pertarungan nyata dengan berbagai praktisi bela diri baik pada masa syuting film maupun hari-hari yang telah ditentukan. Berikut adalah daftar sejumlah pertarungan Bruce Lee yang tercatat : a) Pada tahun 1958, Bruce Lee mengalahkan Juara Boxer Inggris 3x, Gary Elms di ronde ketiga dengan KO dalam kejuaran Hongkong Inter School Amateur Boxing Championship b) Sebelum berhadapan dengan Gary Elms, Bruce Lee mengalahkan Shen Yuen, Lieh Lo dan Yang Huang semuanya di ronde pertama dengan KO c) Bruce Lee mengalahkan Pu Chung, Ahli Kungfu Choy Li Fut dengan KO di ronde pertama dalam pertarungan Full Contact Body. Sponsor pertarungan tersebut adalah Wong Sheung Leung d) Selama tahun 1959-1960, Bruce Lee terlibat banyak pertarungan di jalanan dan rata-rata korbannya KO atau cacat, sehingga pihak Kepolisian menjadi sibuk akibat hobi Beliau e) Pada tahun 1962, Bruce Lee mengalahkan Uechi juara Karate Sabuk Hitam dengan KO 11 detik di Seattle. Taki Kimura justru menghitung KO tersebut dalam waktu 10 detik! f) Pada saat syting film The Big Boss di Thailand, Bruce menjawab tantangan dari para Muai Thay dengan meng-KO wakil mereka hanya dalam hitungan detik g) Pada saat syuting film Enter The Dragon, Bruce juga menjawab tantangan seorang Karateka Ban Hitam dengan meng-KOnya dalam hitungan detik h) Dalam beberapa kesempatan, Bruce menjawab tantangan dari berbagai ahli bela diri baik dengan menggunakan tangan kosong maupun senjata, namun semua lawannya rata-rata mengalami nasib KO atau tidak dapat melanjutkan pertarungan. Pada umumnya pertarungan tersebut disaksikan banyak orang atau ahli-ahli bela diri lainnya i) Pertarungan yang terlama dan cukup menguras energi Bruce Lee adalah pada saat Beliau berhadapan dengan Wong Jack Man, ahli Xing Yi, Kungfu Shaolin Selatan dan Tai Chi. Konon Wong Jack Man adalah petarung Kungfu dari Chin Woo School.
Pertarungan selesai dalam waktu 20-25 menit dengan kemenangan Bruce Lee. Di lain kesempatan, Wong Jack Man mengajukan tantangan kembali namun Bruce Lee tidak pernah menanggapi. Belajar dari pertarungan tersebut, Bruce mengintegrasikan seluruh kemampuan dan ilmu bela dirinya dan akhirnya menciptakan aliran bela diri baru, yakni : Jeet Kune Do.


First Section 1-17
1 Preparation N12 Yu Pei Shih
2 Beginning N12 Chi Shih
3-7 Grasp The Sparrow’s Tail Lan Chueh Wei
3 Ward Off, Left N12 Tso Peng
4 Ward Off, Right E3 Yu Peng
5 Roll Back E3 Lu
6 Press E3 Chi
7 Push E3 An
8 Single Whip W9 Tan Pien
9 Raise Hands N12 Playing the Lute Ti Shou
10 Shoulder Stroke N12 Kao
11 White Crane Spread Its Wings W9 Pai Hao Liang Chih
12 Brush Left Knee W9 Tso Lou Shih Yao Pu
13 Play The Guitar W9 Shou Hui Pi Pa
Brush Left Knee W9 Tso Lou Shih Yao Pu
14-16 Step, Deflect, Intercept, Punch Chin Pu, Pan Lan Chui
14 Step Up and Block (Deflect) W9
15 Intercept and Punch W9
16 Withdraw and Push W9 Ju Feng Szu Pi
17 Cross Hand N12 Shih Tzu Shou
Second Section 18-37
18 Embrace Tiger, Return to Mountain Pao Hu Kuei Shan
Brush Right Knee SE4
Roll Back SE4
Press SE4
Push SE4
Diagonal Single Whip NW10 Sheih Tan Pien
19 Fist Under Elbow W9 Chou Ti Kan Chui
20-21 Step Back and Repulse Monkey
20 Step Back and Repulse Monkey, Right W9 Tao Nien Hou Yu
21 Step Back and Repulse Monkey, Left W9 Tao Nien Hou Tso
Step Back and Repulse Monkey, Right W9 Tao Nien Hou Yu
Step Back and Repulse Monkey, Left W9 Tao Nien Hou Tso
Step Back and Repulse Monkey, Right W9 Tao Nien Hou Yu
22 Diagonal Slant Flying NE2 Hsieh Fei Shih
23-24 Wave Hands Like Clouds
23 Wave Hands Like Clouds, Right N12 Yu Yun Shou
24 Wave Hands Like Clouds, Left N12 Tso Yun Shou
Wave Hands Like Clouds, Right N12 Yu Yun Shou
Wave Hands Like Clouds, Left N12 Tso Yun Shou
25 Snake Creeps Down Left Leg W9 Tan Pien Hsia Shih
26 Golden Rooster Stands on Left Leg W9 Chin Chi Tu Li Shih
27 Golden Rooster Stands on Right Leg W9
28 Separate Hands, Kick With Right Foot NW1011 Yu Fen Chio
29 Separate Hands, Kick With Left Foot SW7
30 Turn Body and Kick With Left Heel E3
Brush Left Knee E3
Brush Right Knee E3
31 Step Forward and Punch Down E3 Chin Pu Tsau Chui
Grasping The Sparrow’s Tail E3
Ward Off, Right E3
Roll Back E3
Press Chi E3
Push An E3
Single Whip W9
32-33 Fair Lady Weaves (Works) at Suttles
32 Fair Lady Weaves (Works) at Suttles, Left NE2 Yu Nu Ch’uan Suo
33 Fair Lady Weaves (Works) at Suttles, Right NW10
Fair Lady Weaves (Works) at Suttles, Left SW7
Fair Lady Weaves (Works) at Suttles, Right SE4
Grasping The Sparrow’s Tail
Ward Off, Left N12
Ward Off, Right E3
Roll Back E3
Press Chi E3
Push An E3
Single Whip W9
Snake Creeps Down Left Leg W9
34 Step Up to Seven Stars W9 Shang Pu Chi Hsing
35 Retreat to Ride the Tiger W9 Tui Pu Kua Hu
36 Turn Body and Sweeping Left Leg Lotus Kick W9 Chuan Shen Pai Lien Tui
37 Bend the Bow to Shoot the Tiger W9 Wan Kung She Hu
Step, Block, Intercept, Punch
Step up and Block W9
Intercept and Punch W9
Withdraw and Push W9
Cross Hand N12 Shih Tzu Shou
Return to Wuji Conclusion N12 Ho Tai Chi